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On this page: Hoplftae – Horcus – Hordearium Aes – Iioplomachi

HORI.

Roman Hours. Modern Hours.

llth hour . 2 o'clock, 58 minutes 0 seconds.

12th „ . 3 „ 42 „ 30

End of the day 4 „ 27 „ 0

55

55

55

<5U

HORA.

HOPLFTAE (07rA?ra:X [ARMA ; exer-C1TUS.]

IIOPLOMACHI. [gladiatores, p. 575, b.] HORA ($pa)} in the signification of hour, that is, the 12th part of the natural day, did not come into general use among the ancients until about the middle of the second century b. c. The equinoc­tial hours, though known to astronomers., were not used in the affairs of common life till towards the end of the fourth century of the Christian era,. As the division of the natural day into twelve equal parts, both in summer and winter, rendered the duration of the hours longer or shorter accord­ing to the different seasons of the year, it is not easy, with accuracy, to compare or reduce the hours of the ancients to our equinoctial hours. The hours of an ancient day would only coincide with the hours of our day at the two equinoxes. [dies and horologium.] As the duration of the natural day, moreover, depends on the polar altitude of a place, our natural days would not coincide with the natural days in Italy or Greece. Ideler, in his Handbuch der Chronologie, has given the following approximate duration of the natural days at Rome, in the year 45 b. c., which was the first after the new regulation of the calendar by J. >Caesar ; the length of the days is only marked ,at the eight principal points in the apparent course ,©£ the sun.

Days of the year. Their duration in 45 B. c. equinoctial hours. Dec. 23 . . . . . 8 hours 54 minutes.

99

95

59

99

99

Feb. 6 ..... 9 „ 50

March 23 .... 12 „ 0

May 9 ...... 14 „ 10

June 25 .... 15 „ 6

August 10 .... 14 ,,10

55

Sept. 25 '„ . . .12 „ 0 Nov. 9 ..... 9 ,,50

55

95

SUMMER-SOLSTICE.

Modern Hours. 4 o'clock, 27 minutes 0 seconds

The following table contains a comparison of the hours of a Roman natural day, at the summer and winter solstice, with the hoars of our day.

Roman Hours.

1st hour ,

30

0

30

0

30

0

30

0

30

0

30

0

55

55

55

59

95

99

99

55

55

95

55

55

55 J5 99 59 95 95 55 99 95 55 55 95

2d „ .5 ., 42

3rd „ . 6 „ 58

4th „ . 8 „ 13

5th „ . 9 „ 29

6th „ . 10 „ 44

7th „ . 12 „ 0

8th „ . 1 „ 15

9th „ . 2 „ 31

10th „ . 3 „ 46

llth „ . 5 „ 2

12th „ . 6 „ 17

End of the day 7 „ 33

WINTER-SOLSTICE.

Roman Hours. Modern Hours.

1st hour . 7 o'clock, 33 minutes 0 seconds

55 55 55 55 55 1") 59 99 41

59 55 55 55 55 59 99 99 S9

2d „ . 8 „ 17 „ 30

55 55 55 5J 55 95 55

3rd „ . 9 „ 2 „ 0

4th 5th 6th

7th „ 8th 9th 10th

46

31

15

0

44

29

13

30

0

30

0

30

0

30

55

99

99

. 9

.10

. 11

. 12

95 9> V

. 12

. 1

2

The custom of dividing the natural day into twelve equal parts or hours lasted, as we have ob­served, till a very late period. The first calenda-rium in which we find the duration of day and night marked according to equinoctial hours, is the calendarium rusticum Farnesianum. (Ideler, Hand-buck der Chron. ii. p. 139, &c. ; Graev. Thesaur. Ant. Rom. viii.)

Another question which has often been discussed, is whether in such expressions as prima, altera, tertia, hora, &c., we have to understand the hour which is passing, or that which has already elapsed. From the construction of ancient sun-dials on which the hours are marked by eleven lines, so that the first hour had elapsed when the shadow of the gnomon fell upon the first line, it might seem as if hora prima meant after the lapse of the first hour. But the manner in which Martial (iv. 8), when describing the various purposes to which the hours of the day were devoted by the Romans, speaks of the hours, leaves no doubt that the expressions prima, altera, tertia hora, &c., mean the hour which is passing, and not that which has already elapsed. (Becker, Callus, vol. i. p. 184, &c.) [L. S.]

HORCUS (6'p/COs). [JUSJURANDUM.]

HORDEARIUM AES. [aes hordearium.] HORI (opoi),were stone tablets or pillars placed on mortgaged houses and lands at Athens, upon which the debt and the creditor's name were in­scribed, and also the name of the archon epon}^-mus in whose year the mortgage had been made. (Harpocrat. s.v. "Opos and^Acrr/Kro^: Pollux, iii. 85, ix. 9.) The following inscription upon an opos, found at Acharnae, is takenfrom Bb'ckh (Corp. Inscrip. i. p. 484): — 'Eirl ®eo<ppd(TTOv ctp%oi/ros,

Uaiav (jeT) xx, that is, SicrxiAiW Spax/neD*/. It ap­pears that the estate had been bought of Phano-stratus, but that the purchase-money, instead of being paid, was allowed to remain on mortgage.

When the estate of an orphan was let by the archon and his guardian [epitropus], the per­son to whom it was let was obliged to hypothe­cate a sufficient piece of ground or other real propert}7", which was called aTro-n/r^a : and upon this an opos was placed, bearing an inscription to that effect, as in the following example, which is taken from an opos found upon the plain of Mara­thon (Bb'ckh, p. 485) : — "Opos %wpiot' ttal ot'/da?, ttTrori/x^a TraiSi opcpaj/tp Ato-yeiTWOS Hpoga-(Tuo-iou). (Compare Isaeus, Philoct. hered. p. 141.) "Opoi were also placed upon houses and lands on account of money due to a husband for the dowry of his wife (Dem. c. Spud. p. 1029. 21), and also upon the property which a husband was obliged to give as a security for the dowry which he received with his wife. (Dem. c. Onetor. ii. p. 877.)

The practice of placing these opoi upon property was of great antiquity at Athens : it existed before the time of Solon, who removed all stones standing upon estates, when he released or relieved the debtors. (Plut. Sol. 15.)

(Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 129, 2nd ed. Corp. Jnscrip. i. p. 484 ; Museum Criticum, No. viii. p. 622 ; Herald. Observ. ad J. A. et Rt p. 216 ; Meier, Ait. Process, p, 506.)

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