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the einperors (Sueton. Aug. 74), and were occasionally allowed also to play in the theatres before the people (publicabaniur}. In the Digest (3. tit. 2. s. 1) \ye read that all actors were infamous. From the time of Tacitus the word histrio was used as synonymous with pantomimus. (Botticher, Lex. Tacit*p. 233.)
Respecting the ordinary pay which common actors received during the time of the republic no thing is known. The pay itself was called lucar (Tacit. Annal. i. 77 ; Plut. Quaest.Rom. p. 285, c. ; Festus, s. vv. lucar and pecunia) \ which word was perhaps confined originally to the payment made to those who took part in the religious services cele brated in groves. In the times of the empire it seems that five denarii (Senec. Epist. 80), or, ac cording to others (Lucian. Icaromen. c. 29), seven drachmae, was the common pay for a histrio for one performance. Several emperors found it neces sary to restrict the practice of giving immoderate sums to actors. (Tacit. I. c.; Suet. Tib. 34.) The emperor M. Antoninus, who was fond of all his trionic arts, ordained that every actor should re ceive five aurei, and that no one who gave or con ducted theatrical representations should exceed the sum often aurei. (Jul. Capitol. M. Anlon. c. 11 ; compare Schol. ad Juvenal, vii. 243.) But it is not clear whether in this regulation the pajanent for one or more performances is to be understood. These sums were either paid by those who en gaged the actors to play for the amusement of the people, or from the fiscus. (Lipsius, Excurs. N. ad Tacit. Annul, i.) Besides their regular pay, how ever, skilful histriones received from the people gold and silver crowns which were given or thrown to them upon the stage. (Phaedr. Fab. v. 7. 36 ; Plin. H.N. xxi. 3.) [L. S.J
HODOPOEI (65o7r<Hoi), public officers at Athens, who had to take care of the roads (pi ofi&v e7n/,ieA.77Tcu, Phot. Lex. s. v.} They arc mentioned in the fragment of a comic poet of the time of Pericles (Plut. Praec. Pol. c. 15) ; but in the time of Aeschines their duties were discharged by the managers of the Theoric fund. (Aesch. c. Ctes. p, 410, Reiske ; comp. Bb'ckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 203, 2nd ed.)
HOLOSERICA VESTIS. [sericum.]
HOLOSPH YRATON, liOLOSPH YRE'-LATA. [malleus ; metalla.]
HOMOEI (o'juoiOf), the Equals, were those Spartans who possessed the full rights of citizenship, and are opposed to the u7ro,ueiWes, or those who had undergone some kind of civil degradation. (Xen. de Rep. Laced, x. 4. s. 7, Hellen. iii. 3. § 5 ; Arist. Pol. ii. 6. §21.) This distinction between the citizens was no part of the ancient Spartan constitution, and is not mentioned by any writer before Xenophon ; and Aristotle simply makes a later institution applicable to an early time, when he speaks of the Parthcniae as belonging to the Homoei (Pol. v. 6. § 1). In the institution ascribed to Lycurgus, every citizen had a certain portion of land ; but as in course of time many citizens lost their lands through various causes, they were unable to contribute to the expenses of the sj^ssitia, and therefore ceased to possess the full rights of Spartan citizens. Hence the distinction appears to have arisen between the ojaoioi and vTro^eWes, the former being those who were in the possession of their land, and consequently able to contribute to the syssitia, the
latter those who through having no land were unable to do so. (Comp. Arist. Pol. ii. 6. §21, ii. 7. §4.) Those persons likewise, who did not adopt the Spartan mode of life or had disgraced themselves by any base act, were also reduced to the condkion of uTrOyiieWes, even if they possessed the requisite landed property (Xen. de Rep. Lac. x. 4. s. 7 ; Plut. Inst. Lac. 21 ; Teles, ap. Stob, Floril. xl. p. 233) ; but as the severity of the ancient Spartan manners decayed, the possession of property becailie the chief test to a place among the Homoei. The Homoei were the ruling class in the state, and they obtained possession of almost all the privileges and exclusive rights which the legislation of Lycurgus conferred upon tha Spartan citizens. They filled all the public offices of the state with, the exception of the Ephoralty, and they probably met together to determine upon public affairs under the name of cKKXyToi in an assembly of their own, which is called tj /.u/cpa eK/cA^rria, to distinguish it from the assembly cf the whole body of Spartan citizens. (Hermann, Lehrb. d. Griech. Staatsallertli. § 47 ; Id. de Con-ditione atque Oriyine eorum qui Homoei ap. Laced,., dicebantur, Marburg, 1832 ; Schb'mann, Antiq, Jur. Publ. Graec p. 11.9.)
HONORARIUM JUS. [edictum.]-HONO'RES. Cicero (Top. c. 20) speaks of the " honores popitli," and Horace (Serm. i. 6. 5)
speaks of the populus ' - • -
" qui stultus honores Saepe dat indignis."
In both passages the word " honores " means the high offices of the state to which qualified individuals were called by the votes of the Roman citizens. Cicero calls the quaestorship " honor " (see also Liv. vi. 39) ; and the words "magistratus " and " honores" are sometimes coupled together. The capacity of enjoying the honores was one of the distinguishing marks of citizenship. [CiviTAS.] In Sulla's proscription (Veil. Pat. ii. 28), there was a clause that the. children of the proscribed "petendorum honorum jure prohiberentur."
There appears to be no exact definition of honor earlier than in the jurists whose writings are ex cerpted in the Digest. " Honor municipals'' is defined to be " administratio reipublicae cum dig- nitatis gradu, sive cum sumptu, sive sine eroga- tione contingens.11 Munus wras either publicum or privatum. A publicum munus was concerned about administration (in administranda republica], and was attended with cost (sumptus) but not with rank (dignitas). " Honor " was properly said " de'ferri," "dari;" munus was said "imponi." Cicero (de Or. i. 45) uses the phrase " honoribus et reipublicae muneribus perfunctum," to signify one who has attained all the honours that his state can give, and discharged all the duties which can be required from a citizen. A person who held a magistratus might be said to discharge munera, but only as incident to the office (magnificentissimo munere aedilitatis perfuncttts^ Cic. ad Fam. xi. 17), for the office itself was the honor. Such munera as these were public games and other things of the kind. (Dig. 50. tit. 4. De Muneribust et Ho* norilus.} [G. L.]
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