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HILARIA (Ixdpia) seems originally to have been a name which was given to any day or season of rejoicing. The hilaria were, therefore, according to Maximus Monachus (Scliol. ad Dionys. Areopag. Epist. 8) either private or public. Among the former he reckons the day on which a person married, and on which a son was born ; among the latter, those days of public rejoicings appointed by a new emperor. Such days were devoted to general rejoicings and public sacrifices, and no one was allowed to show any symptoms of grief or sorrow.
But the Romans also celebrated hilaria, as a feria stativa, on the 25th of March, in honour of Cybele, the mother of the gods (Macrob. Sat. i. 21) ; and it is probably to distinguish these hilaria from those mentioned above, that Lampridius (Aleoeand. Sever, c. 37) calls them Hilaria Matris Deum. The day of its celebration was the first after the vernal equinox, or the first day of the year which was longer than the night. The winter with its gloom had passed away, and the first day of a better season was spent in rejoicings. (Flav. Vopisc. Aurelian. c. 1.) The manner of its celebration during the time of the republic is unknown, except that Valerius Maximus (ii. 4. § 3) mentions -games in honour of the mother of the gods. Respecting its celebration at the time of the empire, we learn from Herodian (i. 10, 11) that, among other things, there was a solemn procession, in which the statue of the goddess was carried, and before this statue were carried the most costly specimens of plate and works of art belonging either to wealthy Romans or to the emperors themselves. All kinds of games and amusements were allowed on this day ; masquerades were the most prominent among them, and every one might, in his disguise, imitate whomsoever he liked, and even magistrates.
The hilaria were in reality only the last day of a festival of Cvbele, which commenced on the 22d
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of March, and was solemnised by the Galli with various mysterious rites. (Ovid, Fast. iv. 337, &c.) It must, however, be observed that the hilaria are neither mentioned in the Roman calendar nor in Ovid's Fasti. [L. S.]
HIMATION OVcmoj/). [pallium.]
HIPPARCHUS. [exercitus, p. 487, a.]
HIPPARMOSTES. [exercitus, p. 483, b.]
HITPICON (nr7i™oV, sc. <rra5ioj/), a Greek measure of distance, equal to four stadia. Accord- in? to Plutarch it was mentioned in the laws of
Solon (Plut. Sol. 23). Hesychius also mentions it under the name of frr-Treios Spo^os. (Comp. hipfodromus ; stadium.) [P. S.]
HIPPOBOTAE (iWo&fTcu), the feeders of horses, was the name of the nobility of Chalcis in Euboea, corresponding to the imrcLS in other Greek states. On the conquest of the Chalcidians by the Athenians in b. c. 506, these Hippobatae were deprived of their lands, and 4000 Athenian cleruchi sent to take possession of them. (Herod, v. 77, vi. 100 ; Strab. x. p. 447 ; Pint. Pericl. 23 ; Aelian, V. H. vi. 1.) [CoLONiA, p. 314, a.]
HIPPODAMEIA (iTrTroSdfteia, sc. epya), is an adjective derived from the name of the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, who is said to have been the first of the Greeks who built whole cities on a regular architectural plan ; and hence the word is applied to such cities, and to the public places and buildings ill them. Peiraeeus, for example, was
designed by Hippodamus, and its market-place was called 'IinruSdfAEia ayopa (Harpocr. s. v.). Hippodamus flourished during the second half of the fifth century b. c. (See Diet, of Biog. art. Hippodamus; Mtiller, Arck'dol. d. Kunst, § 111.) [P. S.J
HIPPODROMUS (Hnr<J5/)o;«>y) was the name by which the Greeks designated the place appropriated to the horse-races, both of chariots and of single horses, which formed a part of their games. The word was also applied to the races themselves.
The mode of fighting from chariots, as described by Homer, involves the necessity of much previous practice ; and the funeral games in honour of Patroclus present us with an example of the chariot-race, occupying the first and most important place in those games. (II. xxiii. 262—650.) In this vivid description the nature of the contest and the arrangements for it are very clearly indicated. There is no artificially constructed hippodrome ; but an existing land-mark or monument (o-^/xa, 331) is chosen as the goal (replace), round which the chariots had to pass, leaving it on the left hand (336), and so returning to the Greek ships on the sea-shore, from which they had started (365). The course thus marked out was so long, that the goal, which was the stump of a tree, could only be clearly seen by its having two white stones leaning against it (327—329), and that, as the chariots return, the spectators are uncertain which is first (450, &c.: the passage furnishes a precedent for betting at a horse-race, 485). The ground is a level plain (330), but with its natural inequalities, which are sufficient to make the light chariots leap from the ground (369, 370), and to threaten an overthrow where the earth was broken by a winter torrent, or a collision in the narrow hollow way thus formed (419—447). The chariots were five in number, each with two horses and a single driver (288, &c.) * ; who stood upright in his chariot (370).
In a race of this nature, success would obviously depend quite as much on the courage and skill of the driver as on the speed of the horses ; a fact which Homer represents Nestor as impressing upon his son Antilochus in a speech which fully explains the chief stratagems and dangers of the contest, and is nearly as applicable to the chariot races of later times as to the one described by Homer (305—348). At starting, it was necessary so to direct the horses as, on the one hand, to avoid the loss of time by driving wide of the straightest course, and on the other not to incur the risk of a collision in the crowd of chariots, nor to make so straight for the goal as to leave insufficient room to turn it. Here was the critical point of the race, to turn the goal as sharp as possible, with the nave of the near wheel almost grazing it, and to do this safely: very often the driver was here thrown out, and the chariot broken in pieces (334—343, 465 —468). There was another danger at this point, which deserves particular notice as connected with the arrangements of the hippodrome of later times As the horse is a very timid animal, it can easily be understood that the noise and crush of many chariots turning the goal together, with the addi-
* But Nestor complains of having been once beaten by two brothers driving at once, the one managing the reins and the other plying the whip (638—642).