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On this page: Hetaeri – Hetaireseos Graphe – Hetairiae – Hexaphorum – Hexastylos – Hexeres – Hiereion – Hiereis Ton Soteron – Hieroduli

CO 6

IIETAIRESEOS GEAPHE.

possessed more than one thousand hetaerae, who were called hpofiovXot, and who were the ruin of many a stranger who visited Corinth. (Wachs-muth, Heilen. Alterth. vol. ii. p. 392.) Hence the name KopivOia K6pt] was used as synonymous with 4raip«, and Kopwdid&crOai was equivalent to itcu-peii'. (Eustath. ad Iliad. ii. 570.) At Sparta, and in most other Doric states, the hetaerae seem never to have acquired that importance which they had in other parts of Greece, and among the Greeks of Asia Minor.

An important question is who the hetaerae gene­rally were ? The tepodovXoi of Corinth were, as their name indicates, persons who had dedicated themselves as slaves to Aphrodite ; and their prostitution was a kind of service to the goddess. [hieroduli. 1 Those ir6pvai who were kept at Athens in public brothels by the Tro/^ogocr/coi, were generally slaves belonging to these 7rop;/o§o<r/coi, who compelled them to prostitute their persons for the purpose of enriching themselves. The owners of these irtpvai were justly held in greater contempt than the unhappy victims themselves. Sometimes, however, they were real prostitutes, who voluntarily entered into a contract with a iropvoSoaKos: others again were females who had been educated in better circumstances and for a better fate, but had by misfortunes lost their liberty, and were compelled by want to take to this mode of living. Among this last class we may also reckon those girls who had been picked up as young children, and brought up by iropvoSoffKo'i for the purpose of prostitution. An instance of this kind is Nicarete, a freed woman, who had contrived to procure seven young children, and afterwards compelled them to prostitution, or sold them to men who wished to have the exclusive possession of them. (Dem. c. Neaer. p. 1351, &c.) Other instances of the same kind are mentioned in the comedies of Plau-tus. (Compare Isaeus, De PMloctem. liered. p. 143.) Thus all prostitutes kept in public or private houses were either r. al slaves or at least looked upon and treated as such. Those hetaerae, on the other hand, who lived alone either as mistresses of certain individuals or as common hetaerae, were almost invariably strangers or aliens, or freed-women. The cases in which daughters of Athe­nian citizens adopted the life of an hetaera, as Lamia, the daughter of Cleanor (Athen. xiii. p. 577), seem to have occurred very seldom ; and whenever such a case happened, the woman was by law excluded from all public sacrifices and offices, Bank down to the rank of an alien, and as such be­came subject to the iropviitbv reAo9: she generally also changed her name. The same degradation took place when an Athenian citizen kept a irop-vtiov, which seems to have happened very seldom. (Bockh, PuU. Econ. of Athens, p. 333, 2nd ed.)

(Fr. Jacobs, Beitraye Zar Gesch. des Weiblich. CJeschlechts, in his Vermischte Scliriften, vol. iv. ; Becker, Charikles, vol. i. p. 109—128, and vol. ii. p. 414—489 ; Limburg-Brouwer, Histoire de la Civilisation Morale et Reliyieuse des Grecs ; Wachs-jnuth, HeUcn. Alterth. vol. ii. p. 392, &c.) [L. S.j

HETAERI (irafpoi). [exkrcitus, p. 488, b.]

HETAIRESEOS GRAPHE (traipfaews 7/ja^). This action was maintainable against such Athenian citizens as had administered to the unnatural lusts of another ; but only if after such degradation they ventured to exercise their political

HIERODULI.

franchise, and aspire to bear office in the state. From the law, which is recited by Aeschines (c. Timarcli. p. 47), we learn that such offenders were capitally punished. The cause was tried by the court of the thesmothetae. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 334.) [J.S.M.]

HETAIRIAE (Ira/pfai). [brands.]

HEXAPHORUM. [lectica.]

HEXASTYLOS. [templum.]

HEXERES. [NAVis.]

HIEREION (tepwv). "[sacrificium.]

HIEREIS TON SOTERON (iepe?y r&v oW,-pcov), priests of the Saviours, that is, of Antigonus and Demetrius, who were received by the Athe­nians, in b. c. 307, as their liberators with honours and flatteries of every sort. They even went so far as to pay divine honours to these princes under the title of Saviours (cr&rrrjpes), and to assign a priest (iepsus) to attend to their worship, who was to be elected annually and to give his name to the year in place of the first archon. This continued for twenty years till the conquest of Demetrius by Pyrrhus in b. c. 287, when the office was abolished and the first archon restored to his former position in the state. (Pint. Dcmetr. 10, 46.) The magistrates of these twenty years were in later times called archons, as, for instance, by Diodorus and Diony-sius of Halicarnassus, since the Athenians, as Clinton remarks, would not leave upon their Fasti this mark of their humiliation. (Droysen, Gescliichte des PMlenisinuS) vol. i. p. 439 ; Clinton, F. IT. vol. ii. p. 380, 2d ed. ; Hermann, Lcltrbuch. d. Griech. Staatsaltertli. § 175, n. 7; Schbmann, Antiqu. Jur. PuU. Grace, p. 360.)

HIERODULI (tepoSouAoi), were persons of both sexes, who were devoted like slaves to tho worship of the gods. They were of Eastern origin, and are most frequently met with in connection with the worship of the deities of Syria, Phoenicia, and Asia Minor. They consisted of two classes ; one composed of slaves properly so called, who at­tended to all the lower duties connected with the worship of the gods, cultivated the sacred lands, &c,, and whose descendants continued in the same servile condition ; and the other, comprising per­sons, who were personally free, but had dedicated themselves as slaves to the gods, and who were either attached to the temples, or were dispersed throughout the country and brought to the gods the money they had gained. To the latter class belonged the women, who prostituted their persons and presented to the gods the money they had ob­tained by this means. The pomp with which reli­gious worship was celebrated in the East, and the vast domains which many of the temples possessed, required a great number of servants and slaves. Thus, the great temple at the Cappadocian Comana possessed as many as 6000 hieroduli (Strab. xii. p. 535), and that at Morimene had 3000 of the same class of persons. (Strab. xii. p. 537.) So numerous were the hieroduli at Tyre, that the high-priest by their support frequently obtained the regal dignity. (Joseph, c. Apion. i. 18, 21.) These large numbers arose from the idea, prevalent in the East, that the deity must have a certain class of persons specially dedicated to his service and separated from the ordinary duties of life, and that it was the duty of all who had the power to supply as many persons as they could for their ser­vice. Thus, kings dedicated as sacred slaves the pri­soners whom they took in war, parents their children,

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