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some confirmation of the tradition which carried back the invention to the Pelasgic times.
In the historical times of Greece, too, it was at Athens that the Hermae were most numerous and most venerated. So great was the demand
for these works that the words epuoy Xixpo s, ep/xo-y\v<puc7) rex*/?;, and cpjaoyXv^e'tov, were used as the generic terms for a sculptor, his art, and his studio (Plat. Symp. p. 215, a. ; Lucian, <:/<?• Somn. i. 7, vol. i. pp. 3, 4, 1 0, 1 1 ; and the Lexicons).
Houses in Athens had one of these statues placed at the door called ep/^Tjs ffrpofycuos or ffrpo-
</>ei5s(Thucyd.vi.27 ' Aelian- V. II. ii. 41 ; Suid. s. v. ; Pollux, viii. 72 ; Ath. x. p. 437, b.) ; sometimes also in the peristyle (Lucian, Navig. 20, vol. iii. p. 262), which were worshipped by the women as instrumental to fecundity (see bas-relief in Boissarde, Antiq, Roman, part 1), and the great reverence attached to them is shown by the alarm and indignation which were felt at Athens in .consequence of the mutilation of the whole number in a single night, just before the sailing of the Sicilian expedition. (Tlmcyd. vi. 27, with Poppo's note ; Andoc. de. Mi/st. ; Aristoph. Lysist. 1093, 10^)4, and Schol. ; Aristophanes applies the term epuoKo-to the mutilators ; see also Phot. s. r, epuo-
They were likewise placed in front of temples, near to tombs, in the gymnasia, palaestrae, libraries, porticoes, and public places, at the corners of streets, on high roads as sign-posts, with distances inscribed upon them (Bb'ckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 12 ; Epigr. Fncert. No. 234, Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 197, Anth. Planud. iv. 234 ; the other epigrams on Hermae, Nos. 255, 256. deserve notice) ; and some are still to be seen at Athens with the names of victors in the gymnastic contests inscribed upon them. (Leake, Athens, p. 17, n. 1.) They were even made vehicles of public instruction, according to the author of the Ilipparchus (falsely ascribed to Plato, p. 229), who says that the tyrant Hippar-chus placed Hermae in the streets of the city and in roads throughout Attica, inscribed with moral verses, such as the following :
Mvr]/J.a ro5' 'Imrapxov' (Tret^e 'd Mi/r}/xa too' 'iTnrdpxov jjlt] <pi\ov i
(Comp. Harpocrat. s. v. 'Epuai ; Hesych. s. v. 'iTnrdpx^ioi *Epjj.cu, with Alberti's note). Those which stood at cross roads had often three or four heads (Philoch. p. 45, ed. Siebelis ; liarpocr. and Etym. M. s. v. rpiK€(f>a\os'Ep/j,ris ; Phot. Hesych. 6-. v. T€rpaK€(j>a\os 'Ep/xTjy ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1353. 3).
Numerous examples occur in Pausanias and other writers of their being placed on the boundaries of lands and states and at the gates of cities (Trpbs ry irv\i$i, TrpoTryAaTos, Paus. viii. 34. § 3. s. 6, iv. 33. § 3. s. 4, et alib. • Harpocr.) Small Hermae were also used as pilasters, and as supports for furniture and utensils. (Pollux, vii. 15, 73 ; Mtiller, Arch. § 379, n. 2.) Respecting the use of the Hermae and Hermuli in the Circus, see pp. 285, a, 286, a.
With respect to the form of these works, the essential parts have been already mentioned. A pointed beard (fffyyvoir&ytav) belonged to the ancient type ( Artemid. ii. 37). A mantle ( ifj.dsriov) was frequently hung over the shoulders (Paus. viii. 39. § 4 ; Diog. Lae'rt. v. 82). Originally the legs and arms were altogether wanting (Pausanias calls them a/cco-
Aot, i. 24. § 3), and, in place of the arms, there were often projections to hang garlands upon ; but, when the reverence attached to the ancient t}rpe became less, and the love of novelty greater, the whole
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torso was placed upon a quadrangular pillar, which lessened towards the base, and finally the pillar itself was sometimes chiselled to indicate the separation of the legs, as may be seen in a tetragonal female statue in the Villa Albani. (Winkelm. Storia dellc Arte, vol. i. tav. 1.) Sometimes, as above stated, the head was double, triple, and even fourfold. The whole figure was generally of stone or marble ; but Cicero (ad Att. i. 8) mentions some which were of Pentelic marble, with bronze-heads. (Mtiller, Archaol. d. Knnst, § 67.)
Many statues existed of other, deities, of the same form as the Hermae ; which no doubt originated in the same manner ; and which were still called by the generic name of Hermae, even though the bust upon them was that of another deity, Several images of this kind are described by Pausanias ; one of Poseidon at Tricoloni in Arcadia (viii 35. § 6), another of Zeus Teleios at Tegea (ib. 48. § 4), and another of Aphrodite Urania at Athens (i. 19. § 2). The reason why the statues of the other deities were developed into perfect forms, while those of Hermes so generally (by no means universally) retained their ancient fashion, is obviously on account of the religious significance attached to the symbol of the pillar, as a boundary mark. Where this motive was not called into action, Hermes himself was represented in the complete human form with all the perfection of Greek art, as, for example, in his statues in the palaestrae, and in those which cm-bodied others of his attributes. (See M tiller, Archaol, d. Kunst, §§ 380, 381.)
Some statues of this kind are described by a name compounded of that of Hermes and another divinity : thus we have Hcrmanuhis, Her marcs ^ Her mailtcna (Cic. ad Att. i. 4), Henneraoles (Cic. ad Att. i. 10), flcrmeros (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10), Hc.rmopan. It has been much disputed whether such figures were composed of the square pillar, as the emblem of Hermes, surmounted by the bust of the other divinity ; or, secondly, whether the heads of Hermes and the other god were united, as in the bust of Janus ; or, lastly, whether the symbolical characteristics of the two deities were combined in the same statue. As to the first explanation, it seems hardly probable that, so late as the time of Cicero, the mere pillar should have been considered as adequate a representation of Hermes as the bust was of the other deity : the second is supported by many existing terminal double busts : the third can only be regarded as an ingenious conjecture, which may be' true of some works of a late period of art. We think that the second is the true explanation in the passages from Cicero. (Comp. Mtiller, Archaol. d. Kunst, § 345, n. 2.)
There is still another class of these works, in which the bust represented no deity at all, but wag simply the portrait of a man, and in which the pillar loses all its symbolical meaning, and becomes a mere pedestal. Even these statues, however, retained the names of Hermae and Termini. The examples of them are very numerous. A list of these and of the other Hermae is given by C. W. Mtiller. (Ersch and Gruber's EncyUop'ddic, art, Henneit.)