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HENDECA. HEMIOBO'LION, HEMIO'BOLUS. [Ono-
HENDECA, HOI, (ol eVSe/ca,) the Eleven, were magistrates at Athens of considerable importance. They are always called by this name in the classical writers ; but in the time of Demetrius Phalereus, their name is said to have been changed into that of vouofyvXattzs (Pollux, viii. 102), who were, however, during the democracy distinct functionaries. [nomophylaces.] The grammarians also give other names to the Eleven, as §£ffp.o<$>v-Aa/ces, ^ecTjUo^uAatfes, &c. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 277, Vesp. 775, 1108.)
The time at which the office of the Eleven was instituted is disputed. Ullrich considers the office to have been of an aristocratical character, and concludes from a passage in Heraclides Ponticus (i. § 10) that it was established by Aristeides. Meier, on the other hand, maintains that the office existed not only before the time of Cleisthenes,
but probably before the legislation of Sol on ; but it seems impossible to come to any satisfactory conclusion on the subject. They were annually chosen by lot, one from each of the ten tribes, and a secretary (ypa/nfj.ar6vs\ who must properly be regarded as their servant (vTrrjperrjs), though he formed one of their number. (Pollux, viii. 102.)
The principal duty of the Eleven was the care and management of the public prison (Seff/nur^piov) [caiicer], which was entirely under their jurisdiction. The prison, however, was seldom used by the Athenians as a mere place of confinement, serving generally for punishments and executions. When a person was condemned to death he was immediately given into the custody of the Eleven, who were then bound to carry the sentence into execution according to the laws. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 54.) The most common mode of execution was by hemlock juice (K&veiov)., which was drunk after sunset. (Plat. Pliaed. cc. 65, 66.) The Eleven had under them jailors, executioners, and torturers, who were called by various names (pi irapacrrdrat, Bekker, Anecd. p. 296. 32 ; 6 ru>v eV5e/m vTnjperTjs, Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 54 ; 6 ^i]^6-kolvos^ Antiph. De Venef. 615 ; 6 S^yudcrios, or Srj/xios, &c.). When torture was inflicted in causes affecting the state, it was either done in the immediate presence of the Eleven (Dem. c. Nicest, p. 1254. 2) or by their servant (6 S^iuos).
The Eleven usually only had to carry into execution the sentence passed in the courts of law and the public assemblies ; but in some instances they possessed an Tiytfjiovia, SiKacmipiov. This was the case in those summary proceedings called cnra-70)777, €(^7970-1 s, and eV5ef£is-, in which the penalty was fixed by law, and might be inflicted by the court on the confession or conviction of the accused without appealing to any of the jury courts. They also had an yye/Aovia, StKaffrripLov in the case of icaKovpyoi, because the summary proceedings mentioned above were chiefly adopted in the case of such persons : hence Antiphon (de Caede Herod, p. 713) calls them eTTifJLsXTjral rS>v KaKOvpywv. The word Kctttovpyot properly means any kind of malefactors, but is only applied in .Athenian law to thieves (/cA«rrcu), house-breakers (roix^p^X01}^ man-stealers (cb'SpcwroSitrraQ, and other criminals cf a similar kind. (Meier, Ait. Proc. pp. 76, 77.)
The Eleven are also said to have possessed 7/76-via SLiiatrrripiov in the case of confiscated property (Elymol. Mag. p. 338. 35), which statement is confirmed by an inscription published by Bockh (Urkunden uber das Seewesen des Attiscken Staates, p. 535). (Ullrich, Ueber die Elf Manner, appended to his translation of Plato's Meno, Crito, and the first and second Alcibiades, Berlin, 1821 ; Sluiter, Lectiones Andocid. pp. 256 — 261 ; Meier, AtL Proc. pp. 68 — 77 ; Schubert, de Aedilibns, pp. 93 — 96 ; Hermann, Lehrb. der Griecli. Staats-altertli. § 139.)
HEPHAESTAEA. [lampadepiioria.] HERAEA ('Hpcua) is the name of festivals celebrated in honour of Hera in all the towns of Greece where the worship of this divinity was introduced. The original seat of her worship, from which it spread over the other parts of Greece, was Argos ; whence her festivals in other places were, more or less, imitations of those which were celebrated at Argos. (Miiller, Dor. ii. 10. § 1.) The Argives had three temples of Hera ; one lay between Argos and Mj^cenae, 45 stadia from Argos ; the second lay on the road to the acropolis, and near it was the stadium in which the games and contests at the lieraea were held (Paus. ii. 24. § 2) ; the third was in the city itself (Pans. ii. 22. § 1). Her service was performed by the most distinguished priestesses of the place ; one of them was the high-priestess, and the Argives counted their years by the date of tier office. (Thucyd. ii. 2.) The Heraea of Argos were celebrated every fifth year, and, according to the calculation of Bockh (Ab/iandl. der Berl. Akad. von 1818-19, p. 92, <Sfc.) in the middle of the second year of every Olympiad. One of the great solemnities which took place on the occasion, was a magnificent procession to the great temple of Hera, between Argos and Mycenae. A vast number of young men — for the festival is called a panegyris — assembled at Argos, and marched in armour to the temple of the goddess. They were preceded by one hundred , whence the festival is also called
€icar6fj,€aia). The high-priestess accompanied this procession, riding in a chariot drawn by two white oxen, as we see from the story of Cleobis and Biton related by Herodotus (i. 31) and Cicero (TuscuL i. 47). The hundred oxen were sacrificed, and their flesh distributed among all the citizens, (Schol. ad Find. Ol. vii 152, and ad Nem. x. 39.) The sacrifice itself was. called Aexe/wa (Hesych. s. v.) or " the bed of twigs." (Comp. Welcker on Schwenck's Etymologise^ Andcutungen, p. 268.) The games and contests of the Heraea took place in the stadium, near the temple on the road to the acropolis. A brazen shield was fixed in a place above the theatre, which was scarcely accessible to any one, and the young man who succeeded in pulling it down received the shield and a garland of myrtle as a prize. Hence Pindar (Nem. x. 41) calls the contest aycbv %aA/csoy. It seems that this contest took place before the procession went out to the Heraeon, for Strabo (viii. p. 556) states that the victor went with his prizes in solemn procession to that temple. This contest was said to have been instituted, according to some traditions, by Acrisius and Proetus (Aelian, V. H. iii. 24), according to others by Archinus. (Schol. ad Pind. Ol vii. 152.)
The Heraea or Hecatombaea of Aegina were celebrated in the same manner as those of Argos