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HELOTES.

I.9G ; Plut. Aristid.24: ; Andoc. de Pace, p. 107.) The office was retained after the treasury was transferred to Athens on the proposal of the Sa-rnians (Pint. Aristid. 25 ; Diod. xii. 38). but was of course abolished on the conquest of Athens by the Lacedaemonians, The Hellenotamiae were not reappointed after the restoration of the demo­cracy ; for which reason the grammarians afford lis little information respecting their duties. Bockh, however, concludes from inscriptions that they were probably ten in number, chosen by lot, like the treasurers of the gods, out of the Pentaco-Biomedimni, and that they did not enter upon their office at the beginning of the year, but after the Panathenaea and the first Prytaneia. With regard to their duties, Bockh supposes that they remained treasurers of the monies collected from the allies, and that payments for certain objects were assigned to them. In the first place they would of course pay the expenses of wars in the common cause, as the contributions were originally designed for that purpose ; but as the Athenians in course of time considered the money as their own property, the Hellenotamiae had to pay the Theorica and mili­tary expenses not connected with wars on behalf of the common cause. (Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 176, 2nd ed. ; Corp. Inscrip. No. 147.)

HELLOTIA. [ellotia.i

HELOTES (EiAeores, the Latin form Ihtae is also used, Liv. xxxiv. 27), were a class of bonds­men subject to Sparta, Ihe whole of the inhabit­ants of Laconia were included in the three classes of Spartans, Perioeci, and Helots, of whom the Helots were the lowest. They formed the rustic population, as distinguished both from the inhabit­ants of Sparta itself, and from the Perioeci who dwelt in the large towns. (Liv. /. c.} Their con­dition was that of serfs attached to the land, ad-scripti glebae ; and they appear to have been the only class of slaves among the Lacedaemonians. Different etymologies are given of their name. The common account is, that thev were originally the Achaean

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inhabitants of the town of Helos in Laconia, who, having been the last to submit to the Dorian invaders, and that only after a desperate struggle, were reduced by the victors to slavery. (Pans. iii. 20. § 6; Harpocr. s.v. eiAeoreuefj/, who cites Hellanicus as his autho­rity). Another account, preserved by Athenacus from Theopompns, represents them as the general body of the ancient Achaean population of Laconia, reduced to slavery by the Dorians, like the Penestae in Thessaly. (Ath. vi. p. 265, c.) The statement of Ephorus, again, preserved by Strabo, has some­thing in common with both the other stories ; for, according to it, the original inhabitants of the country, when subdued by the Dorians, were at first permitted to enjoy an equality of civil and political rights with their conquerors, and ivere called Helots; but they were deprived of their equal status by Agis, the son of Eurysthenes, who made them pay tribute : this decree was resisted only by the people of Helos ('EAetoi ol e'xoyres rb vE\os}, who rebelled and were reduced to slavery under certain conditions. (Strab. viii. p. 365.) Now, all these theories (for such they are) rest on the doubtful foundation of the historical truth of the circumstances attending the Dorian invasion, and the connection of the name with Helos is not only a manifest invention, opposed to the best autho­rities (Theopomp. Eph. //. cc.), but is etymolo-gfcally faulty, for the people of "EAoy were not

HELOTES.

j called EiAwres1, but 'EAeToi (Strab. I.e.} or 'EAcce-rai (Athen. vi. p. 271). The iia:-ne has been also derived from e'A??, marshes, as if it signified inhabitants of the lowlands. But Mutter seems to be nearer the mark in explaining eVAwres as mean­ing prisoners, from the root of eAeTf, to take, like S/xcDes from the root of Sa/zaco. Pie supposes that they were an aboriginal race, who were subdued at a very early period, and who naturally passed over as slaves to the Doric conquerors. It is objected by Thirl wall that this theory does not account for the hereditary enmity between them and their masters ; for unless they lost their liberty by the Dorian conquest, there is no probability that it placed them in a worse condition than before. But to this objection, we may oppose the acute observ­ation of Grote, that those dangers from the servile population, the dread of which is the only probable cause that can be assigned for the cruelty of the Spartans, and the consequent resentment of the Helots, "did not become serious until after the Messenian war — nor indeed until after the gradual diminution of the number of Spartan citizens had made itself felt."

At the end of the second Messenian war (b. c. 660), the conquered Messenians were reduced to slavery, and included under the denomination of Helots. Their condition appears to have been the same, with some slight differences, as that of the other Helots. But, in addition to that remem­brance of their freedom, which made not only them, but, through their influence, the whole class of Helots more and more dangerous to their masters, they preserved the recollection of their national ex­istence, and were ready to seize any opportunity of regaining it; until, at length, the policy of Epami-nondas, after the battle of Leuctra, restored the main body of these Messeniau Helots to their country, where they no doubt formed the chief part of the population of the new city of Messene. (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. v. pp. 104, 105.)

The Helots were regarded as the property of the state, which, while it gave their services to indivi­duals, reserved to itself the power of emancipating them. (Ephorus, ap. Strab. 1. c. ; Paus. I. c.) They were attached to the land, and could not be sold away from it. Several families, as many perhaps as six or seven, resided on each itXrjpos, in dwell­ings of their own, either in detached farms or in villages. They cultivated the land and paid to their masters as rent a fixed measure of corn, the exact amount of which had been fixed at a very earl3* period, the raising of that amount being for­bidden under heavy imprecations. (Plut. Inst. Lac. p. 255.) The annual rent paid for each /cAf/pos was eighty-two medimni of barley, and a propor­tionate quantity of oil and wine. (Plut. Lye. 8. 24.) The domestic servants of the Spartans were all Helots. They attended on their masters at the public meal ; and many of them were no doubt employed by the state in public works.

In war the Helots served as light-armed troops (\l/i\oi), a certain number of them attending every heavy-armed Spartan to the field ; at the battle of Plataeae, there were seven Helots to each Spar­tan, and one to every hoplite of the Perioeci. (Herod, ix. 10. 28.) These attendants were pro-babty called a^-rrirrapes (i. e. d/x^iVra^res, Hesych. s. i'.), and one of them in particular, the frepaTro?*', observant (Herod, vii. 229 ; Sturz. Lex. Xen. s. v.}; though frepdirow was also used by the Dorians as-

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