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(Diod. xviii. 26—28 ; Athen. v. p. 206, e ; Aclian, V. II. xii. 64.)
The harmamaxa was occasionally used by the ladies of Greece. A priestess of Diana is repre sented as riding in one which is drawn by two white cows (Heliod. Aeth. iii. p. 133, ed. Com- melini), and the coins of Ephesus show, that this carriage, probably containing also symbols of the attributes and worship of Diana, added to the splendour of the religious processions in that city. [J. Y.]
HARMOSTAE (from appSfa, to fit or join together) was the name of the governors whom the Lacedaemonians, after the Peloponnesian war, sent into their subject or conquered towns, partly to keep them in submission, and partly to abolish the democratical form of government, and establish in its stead one similar to their own. (Diod. Sic. xiv. 10 ; Xen. Hellen. iv. 2. § 5 ; Isocrat. Paneg. p. 92 ; Suiclas, Hesych. s. v.; Etymol. Mag. s. v. *Eiria'Ta9uoi.') Although in many cases they were ostensibly sent for the purpose of abolishing the tyrannical government of a town, and to restore the people to freedom, yet they themselves acted like kings or tyrants, whence Dionysius (Antiq. Rom. v. p. 337, Sylburg) thinks that harmostae was merely another name for kings. How little sincere the Lacedaemonians were in their professions to restore their subject towns to freedom was manifest after the peace of Antalcidas ; for although they had pledged themselves to re-establish free governments in the various towns, yet they left them in the hands of the harmostae. (Polyb. iv. 27.) The character of their rule is sufficiently described by the word Krare%eij', which Isocrates (/. c.) and Demosthenes (De Coron. p. 258) use in speaking of the harmostae. (Compare Demosth. c. Timo-crat. p. 740 j Pint. Narrat. Amat. c. 3.) Even Xenophon (De Rep. Lac. c. 14) could not help censuring the Lacedaemonians for the manner in which they allowed their harmostae to govern.
It is uncertain how long the office, of an har- mostes lasted ; but considering that a governor of the same kind, who was appointed by the Lacedae monians in Cythera, with the title of Cytherodices, held his office only for one year (Thucyd. iv. 53), it is not improbable that the office of harmostes was of the same duration. [L. S.]
HARPAGES GRAPHE (apirarns ypacpfy. This action seerns, according to Lucian (Jud, Voc. c. 1. vol. i. p. 82, ed. Hemsterh.), to have been applicable to cases of open robbery, attended with violence. Under these circumstances the offenders would be included in the class of Kaicovpyoi, and as such be tried before a court under the con trol and management of the Eleven. With respect to the punishment upon conviction, we have no certain information, but there seems no reason to doubt that it was capital, as in cases of burglary and stealing from the person. (Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 62.) [J. S. M.]
HARPAGINETULI, a sort of decoration for the walls and ceilings of rooms, thus mentioned by Vitruvius, in a passage where he is speaking of irregular and fantastic ornaments (vii. 5. § 3), " pro columnis er«im statuuntur calami^ profastiyiis harpayinetuli striati cvm crispis foliis et volutistene-m." The commentators have laboured in vain to explain the term ; and it is even very doubtful whether the reading is correct. As the word Stands, it seems to refer to some sort of scroll-
pattern. (See Schrieider, Newton, and the other commentators and translators, /. c., and an addition by Bailey to the article in Forcellini.) [P. S.]
HARPAGO (ap-jrdyi]: \vicos: Kpedypa, dim. /cpeaypis), a grappling-iron, a drag, a flesh-hook. (Ex. xxvii. 3 ; 1 Sam. ii. 13, 14. Sept.; Aristoph. Vesp. 1152 ; Anaxippus, ap. Athen. iv. p. 169, b.) The iron-fingered flesh-hook (Kptdypa. <n§i]po8axTv-Aos, Brunck,^w«/. ii. 215) is described bty the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Equit. 769), as " an instrument used in cookery, resembling a hand with the fingers bent inwards, used to take boiled meat out of the caldron." Four specimens of it, in bronze, are in the British Museum. One of them is here represented. Into its hollow extremity a wooden handle was inserted.
A similar instrument, or even the flesh-hook itself (Aristoph. Ecdes. 9.94) was used to draw up a pail, or to recover any thing which had fallen into a well, (llesychius, s. vv. 'ApTrdyTj, Kpedypa,
In war the grappling-iron, thrown at an enemy's ship, seized the rigging, and was then used to drag the ship within reach, so that it might be easily boarded or destroyed. ("Apiral, Athen. v. p. 208, d.) These instruments appear to have been much the same as the manus ferreae (manus ferreae atque har- pagones, Caes. B. C. i. 57 ; Q. Curt. iv. 9 ; Dion Cass. xlix. 3, 1. 32, 34). The manus ferreae were employed by the Consul Duilius against the Car* thaginians (Flor. ii. 2 ; Front. Stratag. ii. 3. § 24), and were said to have been invented bv Pericles. (Plin. //. N. vii. 57.) ^ "[J. Y.J
HARP A STUM (ap7rao-r6v from apird^ca) was a ball, used in a game of which we have no accurate account • but it appears both from the etymology of the word and the statement of Galen (TIzpl fj.iicpas 2<paipa$9 c. 2. p. 902, ed. Ku'hn), that a ball was thrown among the players, each of whom endeavoured to obtain possession of it. (Comp. Pollux, ix. 105, 106 ; Athen. i. p. 14, f.) Hence Martial (iv. 19. 6) speaks of the liar-pasta pulvendenta. The game required a great deal of bodily exertion. (Martial, vii. 67. 4 ; comp. xiv. 48.) (See Becker, G'allus, vol. i. p. 2/6 ; Krause, Gijmnastih und Ayonistik der Hellenen, vol. i. pp. 307, 308.)
HARU SPICES, or ARU'SPICES, were soothsayers or diviners, who interpreted the will of the gods. They originally came to Rome from Etruria, whence haruspices were often sent for by the Romans on important occasions. .(Liv. xxvii. 37 ; Cic. Cat. iii. 8, de Div. ii. 4.) The art of the haruspices resembled in many respects that of the augurs ; but they never acquired that political importance which the latter possessed, and were regarded rather as means for ascertaining the will of the gods than as possessing any religious authority. They did not in fact form amr part of the ecclesiastical polity of the Roman state during the republic ; they are never called sacerdotes, they did not form a collegium, and had no magister at their head. The account of Dionysius (ii. 22),