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On this page: Habenae – Habitatio – Haeres – Halia – Halm a – Haloa – Halteres – Hamaxa – Hamaxopodes – Harma – Harmamaxa

HALTERES.

engaged for the occasion had to give in their names to the yvvaiKovofjioi. (Athen. I. c.) They had also to punish those men who showed their effe­ minate character by frantic or immoderate wailing at their own or other persons' misfortunes. (Plut. Z. c.) The number of these officers is unknown. Meier {Ail. Proe. p. 97) thinks that they were appointed by lot; but Hermann {Polit. Ant. § 150. n. 5), referring to Menander (Rket. de Encom. p. 105. ed. Heeren.), reckons them among those officers who were elected. [L. S.j

H.

HABENAE (yvia) were, generally speaking, leathern thongs, by means of which things were held and managed. Hence the word was in par­ticular applied—1. To the reins by means of which horses were guided and managed. (Virg. Acn. x. 576, xi. 670, 765, xii. 327.) The habenae were, as with us, fixed to the bit or bridle (fraenum). 2. To the thongs attached to a lance, by which it was held and wielded. (Lucan. vi. 221.) [Com-pare hasta, p. 558, a.] 3. To the thong which was formed into a sling, by means of which stones were thrown. (Lucan. iii. 710 ; Valer. Flacc. v. 609.) [funda.] 4. To thongs by means of which the sandals were fastened to the feet. (Gellius, xiii. 21. 4.) From this passage it is also clear that the habenae in this case were not always made of leather, but of strings or chords, whence Gellius calls ihem'-tcretes liabenae. 5. To the thongs formed into a scourge with which young slaves were chas­tised. (Horat. Epist. ii. 2. 15.) The commenta­tors on this passage, indeed, differ about the meaning of habenae ; but if we consider the expressions of Ulpian (Dig. 29. tit. 5. s. 33), impuberes servi ierreri tantum sclent, et liabcna vel ferula cacdi^ it is clear that the habena is the scourge itself. (Comp. Ov. Heroid. ix. 81 ; Virg. Aen. vii. 380.) [L. S.]

HABITATIO. [servitutes.]

HAERES. [heres.]

HALIA (aAm). [agora.]

HALM A (a\f.ia). [pentathlon.]

HALOA (a\S>a). [aloa.]

exercises of the Greeks and Romans. Persons

•who practised leaping often performed their exer­cises with halteres in both hands ; but they were

•also frequently used merely to exercise the body

HALTERES (aXr^pss} were certain masses ;jof stone or metal, which were used in the gymnastic

II ARM AM AX A.

in somewhat the same manner as our dumb-hells. (Martial, jdv. 49, vii. 67. 6 ; Pollux, iii. 155, x. 64 ; graves massae, Juv. vii. 421 ; Senec. Ep. 15, 56.) Pausanias (v. 26. § 3, v. 27. § 8, vi. 3. §4) speaks of certain statues of athletes who were re­presented with halteres. They appear to have been made of various forms and sizes. The pre­ceding woodcut is taken from Tassie, Catalogue, £c. pi. 46, "No. 7978. (Mc-rcurialis, De Arte Gymnastiea, ii. 12 ; Becker, Galhis, vol. i. p. 277; Krause, Die Gymnastik und Ayonitiik der Hellenen, vol. i. p. 395.)

HAMAXA (auata). [HARMAMAXA; plaus-TRUM.]

HAMAXOPODES (a,ua£°^«), in Latin, ARBUSCULAE, appear to have been cylindrical pieces of wood, placed vertically, and with a socket cut in the lower end, to receive the upright pivot fixed above a wheel or above the middle of the axis of a pair of wheels, which could thus turn horizontally in every direction. One use of this sort of socket was to unite the axis of the fore- wheels of a chariot to the body (Pollux, i. 144, 253 ; Hesych. s. v. a,ua£/7ro5es) ; another use of it was to attach the wheels of a testudo to the framing in such a manner, that the machine might easily be moved in -any direction : in fact, the arbuseukt and the wheel together ^formed a castor or universal joint. (Vitruv. x. 20. s. 14. § 1, ed. Schneid.) Newton {ad loc.) supposes that, for the latter pur­ pose, a single piece of timber would be both clumsy and insufficient, and that the arbuscida must have been a sort of framing. (See his figure, No. 114.) ^ [P. S.]

HARMA (ap/j-a). [currus ; harmamaxa.]

HARMAMAXA (ap/xa|Ua£a) is evidently com­pounded of ap,ua, a general term, including not only the Latin currus, but other descriptions of carriages for persons ; and a,ua|a, which meant a, cart, having commonly four wheels, and used to carry loads or burthens as well as persons. (Hcs. Op. et Dies, 692 ; Horn. //. vii. 426, xxiv. 782.) The harmamaxa was a carriage for persons, in its construction very similar to the carpentum, being covered overhead and inclosed with curtains (DiocU xi. 56; Charito, v. 2, 3), so as to be used at night as well as by day (Xen. Cyrop. iv. 2. § 15) ; but it was in general larger, often drawn by four horses, or other suitable quadrupeds, and attired with ornaments more splendid, luxurious, and expen­sive, and in the Oriental style. (Diod. xvii. 35 ; Aristoph. A char. 70.) It occupied among the Persians (Max. Tyr. 34) the same place which the carpentum did among the Romans, being used, especially upon state occasions, for the conveyance of women and children, of eunuchs, and of the sons of the king with their tutors. (Herod, vii. 83, ix. 76; Xen. Cyrop. iii. 1. § 8, iv. 3. § 1, vi. 4. § 11; Q. Curt. iii. 3. § 23.) Also, as persons might lie in it at length, and it was made as commodious as possible, it was used by the kings of Persia, and by men of high rank in travelling by night, or in any other circumstances when they wished to con­sult their ease and their pleasure. (Herod, vii. 41 ; Xen. Cyrop. iii. 1. § 40.)

The body of Alexander the Great was trans­ported from Babylon to Alexandria in a magnifi­cent harmamaxa, the construction of which occupied two years, and the description of which, with its paintings and ornaments in gold, silver, and ivory, employed the pen of more than one historian,

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