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580

GYMNASIUM.

——L-i_J

from some of his laws which are mentioned below. It was about the same period that the Greek towns began to build their regular gymnasia as places of exercise for the young, with baths, and other con­veniences for philosophers and all persons who sought intellectual amusements. There was pro­bably no Greek town of any importance which did not possess its gymnasium. In many places, such as Ephesus, Hierapolis, and Alexandria in Troas, the remains of the ancient gymnasia have been discovered in modern times. Athens alone pos­sessed three great gymnasia, the Lyceum (Au/ce/oy), Cynosarges (KwoVapy^s^and theAcademia ('Ana-$rj/j,ia} ; to which, in later times, several smaller ones were added. All places of this kind were, on the whole, built on the same plan, though, from the remains, as well as from the descriptions still extant, we must infer that there were many dif­ferences in their detail. The most complete de­scription of a gymnasium which we possess, is that given by Vitruvius (v. ] 1), which, however, is very obscure, and at the same time defective, in as far as many parts which seem to have been essen­tial to a gymnasium, are not mentioned in it. Among the numerous plans which have been drawn, jiccording to the description of Vitruvius, that of W. Newton, in his translation of Vitruvius, vol. i. fig. 52, deserves the preference. The following woodcut is a copy of it, with a few alterations.

l'he peristylia (D) in a gymnasium, which Vi­truvius incorrectly calls palaestra, are placed in the form of a square or oblong, and have two stadia (1200 feet) in circumference. They consist of four porticoes. In three of them (A B C) spacious exe-drae with seats were erected, in which philoso­phers, rhetoricians, and others, who delighted in intellectual conversation might assemble. A fourth portico.(E), towards the south, was double, so that the Interior walk was not exposed to bad weather. The double portico contained the following apart­ments : — The Ephebeum (F), a spacious hall with seats, in the middle, and by one-third longer than broad. On the right is the Coryceum (G), perhaps the same room which in other cases was

GYMNASIUM.,

called Apodyterium ; then came the Conisterium (H ) adjoining ; and next to the Conisterium, in the re­ turns of the portico, is the cold bath, \ovrpov (I). On the left of the Ephebeum is the Elaeothesium, where persons were anointed by the aliptae (K). Adjoining the Elaeothesium is the Frigidariirai (L), the object of which is unknown. From thence,, is the entrance to the Propnigeum (M), on the re­ turns .of-the portico ; near which, but more inward, behind the place of the frigidarium, is the vault? d> sudatory (N), in. length-.twice its breadth, 'which" has on the returns the Laconicmn (0) on one side, and opposite the Laconicum, the hot-bath (P). On the outside three porticoes are built; one (Q), in passing out from the peristyle, and, on the right., and left, the two stadial porticoes (R S), of which, - the one (S) that faces the north, is made, double" and of great breadth, the other (R) is single, and so designed that in the parts which encircle the walls, and which adjoin to the columns, there may. be margins for paths, not less than ten fe?t ; and the middle is so excavated, that there may be two steps, a foot and a half in descent, to go from the margin to the plane (R), which plane should not. be less in breadth than 12 feet; by this means., those who walk about the margins in their apparel will not be anno3red by those who are-exercising themselves. This portico is called by the Greeks £u<rros, because in the winter season the athletae exercised themselves in these covered stadia. The iucttos had groves or plantations between the two porticoes, and walks between the trees, with seats of signine work. Adjoining to the ^vffros (R) and double portico (3), are the uncovered walks (U), which in Greek are called TrapaSpo/xiSes1, to which the. athletae, in fair weather, go from the .winte.r-, xystus, to exercise. Beyond the xystus is the- stadium (W), so large that a multitude of people may have sufficient room to behold the contests of" the athletae. •

It is generally believed that Vitruvius in. this description of his gymnasium took that of Naples', as his model ; but two important parts of other Greek gymnasia, the apodyterium and the sphaeris-terium, are not mentioned .by him. . The Greeks" bestowed great care upon the outward and inward splendour of their gymnasia, and adorned them, with the statues of gods, heroes, victors in the public games, and of eminent men of every class. Hermes was the. tutelary deity of the gymnasia, and his statue was consequently seen in most of them.

The earliest regulations which we possess con­cerning the gymnasia are contained in the. laws of. Solon. One of these laws forbade all adults to enter a gymnasium during the time that boys were taking their exercises, and at the festival of the Hermaea. The gymnasia were, according to the same law, not allowed to be opened before sun­rise, and were to be shut at sunset. (Aeschin. c.Timarch. p. 38.) Another law of Solon ex­cluded.slaves from gymnastic exercises. (Aeschinr c. Timarch. p. 147 ; Pint. Solon, 1 ; Demosth. c. Timocrat. p. 736.) Boys, who were children of an Athenian citizen and a foreign mother (i-'o&u), were not admitted to any other gymnasium but the Cynosarges. (Pint. Them. 1.) Some of the laws of Solon relating to the management and the super­intendence of the gymnasia, show that he was aware of the evil consequences which these insti­tutions might produce, unless they were regulated

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