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On this page: Gqttus – Graphiarium – Graphis – Graphium – Gregorianus Codex – Griphus – Grosphos – Gubernaculum – Gustatio – Gymnasiarciies

GYMNASIUM/

in the proceeds to the public treasury. (Meier, Alt. /'roc. p. 740, &c.) " [ J. S. M.]

GRAPHIARIUM. [stilus.]

GRAPHIS. [pictura, No. VI.]

GRAPHIUM. [stilus.]

GREGORIANUS CODEX. [codex gre-

GORIANUS.]

GRIPHUS (ypr^os). [aenigma.] GROMA. [agrimensores ; castra, p. 251, a.]

GROSPHOS (yptffQos). [hasta.]

GUBERNACULUM. [navis.]

GUSTATIO. [coena, p. 307,a.]

GQTTUS, a vessel, with a narrow mouth or

neck, from which the liquid was poured in drops:

hence its name " Qui vintim dabant ut minutatim

funclerent, a guttis guiium appellarunt." (Varr. L.

L. v. 124, ed. Mtiller.) It was especially used in

sacrifices (Plm. H. N. xvi. 38. s. 73), and hence

we find it represented on the Roman coins struck

by persons who held any of the priestly offices ;

as, for instance, in the annexed coin of L. Planeus,

the contemporary of Augustus, where it appears,

though in different forms, both on the obverse and

reverse. The guttus was also used for keeping

the oil, with which persons were anointed in the baths. (Juv. iii. 263, xi. 158.) A guttus of this kind is figured on p. 192.

GYMNASIARCIIES. [gymnasium.] GYMNA'SIUM (jv^v&ffiov}. The whole edu­cation of a Greek youth was divided into three parts: grammar, music, and gymnastics (ypd/jL^ara, [Aova'iK.'fi, and yv/j.vaa'TiK'fi, Plato, Theag. p. 122 ; Pint, de Audit, c. 17 ; Clitoph. p. 497), to which Aristotle (de Republ. viii. 3) adds a fourth, the art of drawing or painting. Gymnastics, however, were thought by the ancients a matter of such im­portance, that this part of education alone occupied as much time and attention as all the others put together ; and while the latter necessarily ceased at a certain period of life, gymnastics continued to be cultivated by persons of all ages, though those of an advanced age naturally took lighter and less fatiguing exercises than boys and youths. (Xen. Sympos. i. 7 ; Lucian, Lexipli. 5.) The ancients, and more especially the Greeks, seem to have been thoroughly convinced that the mind could not pos­sibly be in a healthy state, unless the body was likewise in perfect health, and no means were thought, either by philosophers, or physicians, to be more conducive to preserve or restore bodily health than well-regulated exercise. The word gymnas­tics is derived from "yv^vos (naked), because the persons who performed their exercises in public or private gymnasia were either entirely naked, or merely covered by the short %irwv. (See the autho­rities inWachsmuth,/y<g#<3#. Alterili. vol. ii. p. 354. 2d edit., and Becker, ChariUes, vol. i. p. 316.)

The great partiality of the Greeks for gymnastic exercises was productive of infinite good: they gave to the body that healthy and beautiful deve-

GYMNASIUM. fi'731

lopment by which the Greeks excelled all other nations, and which at the same time imparted to their minds that power and elasticity which will-ever be admired in all their productions. (Lucian, de Gymnast. 15.) The plastic art in particular must have found its first and chief nourishment in the gymnastic and athletic performances, and it may be justly observed that the Greeks would never have attained their preeminence in sculpture had not their gymnastic and athletic exhibitions made the artists familiar with the beautiful forms of the human body and its various attitudes. Re­specting the advantages of gymnastics in a medical point of view, some remarks are made at the end of this article. But we must at the same tima confess, that at a later period of Greek history when the gymnasia had become places of resort for idle loungers, their evil effects wore no less strik­ing. The chief objects for which they had origi­nally been instituted were gradually lost sight of, and instead of being places of education and train­ing they became mere places of amusement ; and among other injurious practices to which they gave rise, the gymnasia were charged, even by the an­cients themselves, with having produced and fos­tered that most odious vice of the Greeks, the TrcuoVpacrrta. (Pint. Quaest. Rom. 40. vol. ii. p. 122. ed. Wyttenb.; compare Aristot. de Republ. viii. 4 ; Pint. Philop. 3.)

Gymnastics, in the widest sense of the word, comprehended also the agonistic and athletic arts (ofy<avur-TiKJ} and aflATjri/o]), that is, the art of those who contended for the prizes at the great public games in Greece, and of those who made gymnas­tic performances their profession [athletae and agonothetae]. Both originated in the gymna­sia, in as far as the athletae, ns well as the ngonis-tae were originally trained in them. The athletae, however, afterwards formed a distinct class of per­sons unconnected with the gymnasia ; while tho gymnasia, at the time when they had degenerated, were in reality little more than agonistic schools, attended by numbers of spectators. On certain occasions the most distinguished pupils of the gym­nasia were selected for the exhibition of public contests [lampadephofia], so that on the whole there was always a closer connection between the gymnastic and agonistic than between the gym­nastic arid athletic arts. In a narrower sense, how­ever, the gymnasia had, with very few exceptions, nothing to do with the public contests, and .were places of exercise for the purpose of strengthening and improving the body, or in other words, places for physical education and training ; and it is chiefly in this point of view that we shall consider them in this article.

Gymnastic exercises among the Greeks seem to have been as old as the Greek nation itself, as may be inferred from the fact that gymnastic con­tests are mentioned in many of the earliest legends of Grecian story ; but they were, as might be sup­posed, of a rude and mostly of a warlike character. They were generally held in the open air, and in plains near a river, which afforded an opportunity for swimming and bathing. The Attic legends indeed referred the regulation of gymnastics to Theseus (Pans. i. 39. § 3), but according to Galen it seems to have been about the time of Cleisthenes that gymnastics were reduced to a regular and com-* plete system. Great progress, however, must have been made as early as the time of Solon, as appears

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