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retiarius in the distance is probably5" destined to fight in his turn with the surviving secutor. The hist group consists of a mirmillo and a Sanmite ; the latter is defeated.
In the last woodcut two combats are represented. In the first a Sanmite has been conquered by a mirmillo ; the former is holding up his hand to the people to implore mercy, while the latter apparently wishes to become his enemy^s executioner before receiving the signal from the people ; but the lanista holds him back. In the other combat a mirmillo is mortally wounded by a Samnite.
GLADIUS (l^oy, poet. &op, fydffyavov), a sword or glaive, by the Latin poets called ensis. The ancient sword had generally a straight two-edged" blade (aufyiiKes, Horn. II. x. 256), rather broad, and nearly of equal width from hilt to point. Gladiators, however, used a sword which was curved like a scimitar. (Mariette, Eecueil, No. 92.) In times of the remotest antiquity swords were made of bronze, but afterwards of iron. (Eurip. Phoen. 67, 529, 1438 ; Virg. Aen. iv. 579, vi. 260, xii. 950.) The Greeks and Romans wore them on the left side (Sid. Apollin. Carm. 2), so as to draw them out of the sheath (vagina, /coAeos) by passing the right hand in front of the body to take hold of the hilt with the thumb next to the blade. Hence Aeschylus distinguishes the army of Xerxes by the denomination of /*axaipo<p6pov eQvos (Pers. 56), alluding to the obvious difference in their appearance in consequence of the use of the acinaces instead of the sword.
The early Greeks used a very short sword. Iphicrates, who made various improvements in amiour about 400 b. c., doubled its length (Diod. xv. 44), so that an iron sword, found in a tomb at Athens, and represented by Dodwell (Tour, i. p. 443), was two feet five inches long, including the handle, which was also of iron. The Roman sword, as was the case also with their other offensive weapons, was larger, heavier, and more formidable than the Greek. (Floras, ii. 7.) Its length gave occasion to the joke of Lentulus upon his son-in-law, who was of very low stature, " Who tied my son-in-law to his sword ?" (Ma-crob. Saturn, ii.) To this Roman sword the Greeks applied the term <nrddr] (Arrian, Tact.\ which was the name of a piece of wood of the same form used in weaving [tela]. The British glaive Avas still larger than the Roman. (Tac. Agric. 36.) In a monument found in London, and preserved at Oxford, the glaive is represented between three and four feet long. (Montfaucon, Supplem. iv. pv!6.)
The principal ornament of the sword was bestowed upon the hilt. [capulus.]
GNOMON (yv&jj.cw'). [HcmoLOGiUM.]
GORGYRA (yoyyvpcC). [carcer.]
GRADUS (j8%ia), a step, as a measure of length, was half a pace (passus) and contained 2-i-feet, Greek and Roman respectively, and therefore the Greek $7^ua was rather more, and the Roman
gradus rather less, than 2£ feet English. (See the Tables.) [P.S.] '
GRADUS COGNATIONIS. [cognati.]
GRAECOSTASIS, a place in the Roman' forum, on the right of the Comitium, was so called because the Greek ambassadors, and perhaps also deputies from other foreign or allied states, were allowed to stand there to hear the debates. The Graecostasis was, as Niebuhr remarks, like privileged seats in the hall of a parliamentary assembly. The Stationes Municipiorum, of which Pliny speaks (//. N. xvi. 44. s. 86), appear to have been places allotted to municipals for the same purpose. When the sun was seen from the Curia coming out between the Rostra and the Graecostasis, it Avas mid-day ; and an accensus of the consul announced the time with a clear loud voice. (Plin, H. N. vii. 60, xxxiii. 1. s. 6 ; Cic. ad Q. Fr. ii. 1; Varr. L. L. v. 155, ed. Mtiller ; Niebuhr, Hist.,of Rome, vol. ii. note 116.)
GRAMMATEUS (ypa^/j-arevs), a clerk or scribe. Among the great number of scribes employed by the magistrates and governments of Athens, there were three of a higher rank, who were real state-officers. (Suidas, s. v.} Their functions are described by Pollux (viii. 98). One of them was appointed by lot, by the senate, to serve the time of the administration of each prytany, though he always belonged to a different prytany' from that which was in power. He was therefore called 7pa/.i/mT€i>s Kara Trpvraveia^. (Demosth. c. Timocrat. p. 720.) His province was to keep the' public records, and the decrees of the people which were made during the time of his office, and to de-liver to the thesmothetae the decrees of the senate.' (Demosth. I. c.) Demosthenes in another passage (de Fals. Leg. p. 381) states that the public documents, which were deposited in the Metroon, were in the keeping of a public slave ; whence we must suppose with Schomann (de Comit. p. 302, trails!.) that this servant, whose office was probably for life, was under the ypaatuarevs, and was his assistant. Previous to the archonship of Eucleides, the name of this scribe was attached to the beginning of every decree of the people (Schomann, p. 132, &c.; compare boule) ; and the name of the ypa^arevs who officiated during the administration of the first prytany in a year was, like that of the archon eponymus, used to designate the year.
The second ypatu/j.aTevs was elected by the
senate, by xelforov'La-) an^ was entrusted with the custody of the laws (eVrl rovs vo/aovs, Pollux, 1. c. ; Demosth. c. Timocrat. p. 713 ; de Cor on. p. 238). His usnal name was 7pajU,uaTeus rr/s /3ouAf;s, but in inscriptions he is also called ypa^arebs ru>v /3ouAeuToJj/ (Bockh, 'PuU. Econ. p. 185, 2d edit.). Further particulars concerning his office are not known.
A third ypa^uarevs was called ypafj-fiarevs rf/s ?roAea>s (Thucycl. vii. 3 0), or ypa/^arevs rf/s fiovXvs kcu tou §r,f.(.ov. He was appointed by the people, by xeiPOTOJ/'La> ancl the principal part of his office was to read any laws or documents which were required to be read in the assembly or in the senate. (Pollux, 1. c.; Demosth. de Fals. Leg. p. 419 ; c.-Leptin. p. 485 ; Suidas, s.v.)
A class of scribes, inferior to these, were those persons who were appointed clerks to the several civil or military officers of the state, or who served any. of the three ypa^ar^is mentioned above as . under-clerks (vTroypa^areis, Demosth; de