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GLADIATORES.

£76

GLADIATORES.

fned. pi. 197), a combat is represented between a ret'arius and a mirmillo: the former has thrown his net over the head of the latter, and is proceed­ing to attack him with the fuscina. The lanista stands behind the retiarius.

Sammies were so called, because they were armed in the same way as that people, and were particularly distinguished by the oblong scutum. (Liv. ix. 40 ; Cic. pro ScxL 64.)

S:'cutores are supposed by some writers to be so called because the seen tor in his combat with the retiarius pursued the latter when he failed in se­curing him by his net. Other writers think that they were the same as the suppositUii^ mentioned by Martial (v. 24), who were gladiators substituted in th•••• place of those who were wearied or were killed. (Suet. Col. 30 ; Juv. viiL 210.) If the old reading in a letter of Cicero's (ad Ait. vii. 14) is correct, Julius Caesar had no less than 500 secutores in his rudus at Capua ; but it appears probable that we ought to read scwtorum instead of secutorum. , Supposititii. See Secutores.

T/iraces or TJireces were armed like the Thra-cians with a round shield or buckler (Festus, s. v. Thraeces), and a short sword or dagger (sica, Suet. Cal. 32), which is called falx supina by Juvenal •(viii. 201). They were usually matched, as already stated, with the mirmillones. The woodcut in the next column, taken from Winekelmann (/. c.), re-.presents a combat between two Thraeians, A lanista stands behind each.

Paintings of gladiatorial combats, as well as of the other sports of the amphitheatre, were favourite subjects with the Roman artists. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 33 ; Capitol. Gord. 3 ; Vopisc. Carin. 18.) Several statues of gladiators have come down to us, which are highly admired as works of art: of these the most celebrated is the gladiator of the

Borghese collection, now in the Museum of the Louvre, and the dying gladiator, as it is called, in the Capitoline Museum. Gladiatorial combats are represented in the bas-reliefs on the tomb of Scau-rus at Pompeii, and illustrate in many particulars the brief account which has been given in this article of the several classes of gladiators. These bas-reliefs are represented in the following wood­cuts from Mazois (Pomp. i. pi. 82). The figures are made of stucco, and appear to have been mould­ed separately, and attached to the plaster by pegs of bronze or iron. In various parts of the frieze are written the name of the person to whom the gladiators belonged, and also the names of the gla­diators themselves, and the number of their vic­tories. The first pair of gladiators on the left hand represents an equestrian combat. Both wear helmets with vizors, which cover the whole face, and are armed with spears and round bucklers. In the second pair the gladiator on the left haa been wounded ; he has let fall his shield, and is imploring the mercy of the people by raising his hand towards them. His antagonist stands be­hind him waiting the signal of the people. Like

all the other gladiators represented on the frieze, they wear the subligacutum or short apron fixed above the hips. The one on the left appears to be a mirmillo, and the one on the right, with an ob­long shield (scutum)^ a Samnite. The third pair consists of a Thracian and a mirmillo, the latter of

whom is defeated. The fourth group consists of four figures ; two are secutores and two retiarii. The secutor on his knee appears to have been de­feated by the retiarius behind him, but as the fuscina is not adapted for producing certain death, the other secutor is called upon to do it. The

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