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not be called a " tyranny," in consequence of the extensive powers of the ephoralty, though it was as much like a democracy as any form of government could well be ; and yet, he adds, not to call it an aristocracy (i. e. a government of the &phttoi), is quite absurd. Moreover, Aristotle (Polit. iv. 8), when he enumerates the reasons why the Spartan government was called an oligarchy, makes no men­tion of the relations between the Spartans and their conquered subjects, but observes that it received this name because it had many oligarchical insti­tutions, such as that none of the magistrates were chosen by lot ; that a few persons were competent to inflict banishment and death.

Perhaps the shortest and most accurate descrip­tion of the constitution of Sparta is contained in the following observations of Aristotle (Polit, ii. 6): — Some affirm that the best form of government is one mixed of all the forms, wherefore they praise the Spartan constitution: for some say that it is composed of an oligarchy, and a monarchy, and a democracy — a monarchy on account of the king?, an oligarchy on account of the councillors, and a

O v '

democracy on account of the ephors ; but others say that the ephoralty is a " tyranny; '' whereas, on the other hand, it may be affirmed that the public tables, and the regulations of daily life, are of a democratic tendency. [R. W.J

GERRHA (yeppa), in Latin, Gerrae, properly signified any thing made of wicker-work, and was especially used as the name of the Persian shields, which Were made of wicker-work, and were smaller and shorter than the Greek shields (a.vrl ao'Tri'Sco*', yep/ia, Herod, vii. 61, ix. 61 ; Xen. Anal. ii. 1. § 6; Festus, s. vv. cer rones, g errae).

GLADIATORES (Atoi/ofiaxoi), were men who fought with swords in the amphitheatre and other places for the amusement of the Roman people. {Gladiator est, qui in arena, populo spectante, pug-navit, Quintil. Declam. 302.) They are said to have been first exhibited by the Etruscans, and to have had their origin from the custom of killing slaves and captives at the funeral pyres of the de­ceased. (Tertull. de Spectac. 12 ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. x. 519.) [FuNus, p. 559, a.] A show of gladiators was called munus, and the person who exhibited (edebat} it, editor, numerator, or dominus, who was honoured during the day of exhibition, if a private person, with the official signs of a magis­trate. (Capitol. M. Anton. Pldlos. 23 ; Flor. iii. 20 ; Cic. 19. §3.)

Gladiators were first exhibited at Rome in b. c. 264, in the Forum Boarium, by Marcus and t>eci-mus Brutus, at the funeral of their father. (Valer. Max. ii. 4. § 7 ; Liv. Epit. 16.) They were at first confined to public funerals^ but afterwards fought at the funerals of most persons of conse­quence, and even at those of women. (Suet. Jul. 26 ; Spartan. Hadr. 9.) Private persons some­times left a sum of money in their will to pay the expenses of such an exhibition at their funerals. (Sen. de Brev. Vit. 20.) Combats of gladiators were also exhibited at entertainments (Athen. iv. p. 153 ; Sil. ItaL xi. 51), and especially tit public festivals by the aediles and other magistrates, who sometimes exhibited immense numbers with the view of pleasing the people. (Cic. pro Mur. 18 ; de O/f. ii. 16.) [aediles.] Under the empire the passion of the Romans for this amusement rose to its greatest height, and the number of gladiators who fought on some occasions appears


almost incredible. After Trajan's triumph over the Dacians, there were more than 10,000 ex­hibited. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 15.)

Gladiators consisted either of captives (Vopisc. Prob. 19), slaves (Suet. Vitell. 12), and condemn­ed malefactors, or of freeborn citizens who fought voluntarily. Of those who were condemned, some were said to be condemned ad gladium, in which case they were obliged to be killed at least within a year ; and others ad ludum, who might obtain their discharge at the end of three years. (Ulpian, Collat. Mos. et Rom. Leg. tit. ii. s. 7. § 4.) Freer men, who became gladiators for hire, were called auctorati (Quint. 1. c. ; Hor. Sat. ii. 7. 58), and their hire auctoramentum or gladiator ium. (Suet. Tib. 7 ; Liv. xliv. 31.) They also took an oath on entering upon the service, which is preserved b}r Petronius (117). — " In verba Eumolpi sacra-men turn juravimus, nri, vinciri, verberari, ferroque necari, et quicquid aliud Eumolpus jussisset, tam~ quam legitimi gladiatores domino corpora animas-que religiosissime addicimus." (Compare Senec. Epist. 7.) Even under the republic free-born citizens fought as gladiators (Liv. xxviii. 21), but they appear to have belonged only to the lower orders. Under the empire,, however, both equites and senators fought in the arena (Dion Cass. Ii. 22 ; Ivi. 25 • Suet. Jul. 39 ; Aug. 43 ; Ner. 12), and even women (Tacit. Ann. xv. 32 ; Suet. Dom. 4 ; Juv. vi. 250, &c. ; Stat. Site. I. vi. 53) ; which practice was at length forbidden in the time of Severus. (Dion Cass. Ixxv. 16,)

Gladiators were kept in schools (ludi), where they were trained by persons called lanistat. (Suet. Jul. 26 ; Cic. pro Rose. Amer. 40 ; Juv. vi. 216, xi. 8.) The whole body of gladiators under one lanista was frequently called familia. (Suet. Aug. 42.) They sometimes were the property of the lanistae, who let them out to persons who wished to exhibit a show of gladiators ; but at other times belonged to citizens, who kept them for the purpose of exhibition, and engaged lanistae to instruct them. Thus we read of the Indus Aemilius at Rome (Hor. de Art. poet 32)f and of Caesar's ludus at Capua. (Caes. Bell. Civ. i. 14.) The superintendence of the1 ludi, which belonged to the emperors, was entrusted to a person of high, rank^ called curator or procurator. (Tacit. Ann. xi. 35 ; xiii. 22 ; Suet. Cat. 27 ; Gruter, Jnscr. p. 489.) The gladiators fought in these ludi with woodett swords, called rudes. (Suet. Cal.- 32, 54.) G'f'eat attention was paid to their diet in order to increase the strength of their bodies, whence Cicero (Phil. ii. 25) speaks of "' gladialtoria totius cor-poris firmitas." They were fed with nourishing food, calledgladiatoria sagina. (Tacit. Hist. ii. 88.) A great number of gladiators we're trained at Ravenna on account of the salubrity1 of the place. (Strabo, v, p. 213.)

Gladiators were sometimes exhibited afc the funeral pyre, a'nd sometimes i'n tlie fortfrn^ but more frequently in the amphitheatre; [ampiji-THEATRtfM.J The person who was to exhibit a show of gladiators published some days before the exhibition bills (libel-It^ containing the number and sometimes the names of those who were to fight. (Cic. ad Fain. ii. 8 ; Suet. Caes. 26.) When the day came, they were led along the arena in procession, and matched by pairs (Hor. Sat. i. 7. 20) ; and their swords were examined by the editor to sec if they were sufficiently sharp.

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