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•which occurs in one of the fragments of Varro (p. 273, ed. Bip.) and in the Aniliolog. Lat. vol. i. p. 34, ed. Burmann. [L. S.]
GAMELIA (ya^Xia). The denies and phra-tries of Attica possessed various means to prevent intruders from assuming the rights of citizens. Among other regulations it was ordained that every bride, previous to her marriage, should be introduced by her parents or guardians to the phratria of her husband (ya^Xiav virepyvvcfiicos eiV^epetj/, Isaeus, de Pyrrh. Haered. pp. 62, 65, &c.; cledron. flaered. p. 208 ; Demosth. c. Eubul. p. 1312 and 1320). This introduction of the young women was accompanied by presents to their new phratores, which were called ya/j.^^ia, (Suidas, s. v.; Schol. ad Dem. c. JSztbul. p. 1312.) The women were enrolled in the lists of the phratries, and this enrolment was also called ya^Xia.. The presents seem to have consisted in a feast given to the phratores, and the phratores in return made some offerings to the gods on behalf of the young bride. (Pollux, iii. 3, viii. 9, 28.) The acceptance of the presents and the permission to enroll the bride in the registers of the phratria, was equivalent to a declaration that she was considered a true citizen, and that consequently her children would have legitimate claims to all the rights and privileges of citizens. (Herm. Lelir. d. griech. StaatsaU. § 100, n. 1.) • -
FttyiTjAia was also the name of a sacrifice offered to Athena on the day previous to the marriage of a girl. She was taken by her parents to the temple of the goddess in the Acropolis, where the offerings were made on her behalf. (Suidas, s. v. riporeAeia.) The plural, yajj,7]\iai9 was used to express wed ding solemnities in general. (Lycophron, ap, Etym. m.s.v.) [L. S,]
GAMOS (ydpos). [matrinqnium.]
GANEA. [caupona, p. 259, a.]
GAUSAPA, GAUSAPE, or GAUSAPUM, a kind of thick cloth, which was on one side very woolly, and was used to cover tables (Herat. Sat. ii. 1-1 ; Lucil. ap. Priseian. ix. 870), beds (Mart, xiv. 147), and by persons to wrap themselves up after taking a bath (Petron. 28), or in general to protect themselves against rain and cold. (Seneca, Epist. 53.) It was worn by men as well as women. (Ovid, Ars Amat. ii. 300.) It came in use among the Romans about the time of Augustus (Plin. H. N. viii. 48), and the wealthier Romans had it made of the finest wool, and mostly of a purple colour. The gausapum seems, however, sometimes to have been made of linen, but its peculiarity of having one side more woolly than the other always remained the same. (Mart. xiv. 138.) As Martial (xiv. 152) calls it gausapa, quadrata, we have reason to suppose that., like the Scotch plaid, it was always, for whatever purpose it might be used, a square or oblong piece of cloth* (See Bottiger, Sabina^ ii. p. 102.)
The word gausapa is also sometimes used to designate a thick wig, such as was made of the hair of Germans, and worn by the fashionable people at Rome at the time of the emperors. (Pers. Sat, vi. 46.) Persius (Sat. iv. 38) also applies the word in a figurative sense to a full beard. [L. S.] GELEONTES. [TuiBus, greek.] GELOTOPOII (y€\o>TOTToiol) [parasiti.] GENE'SIA. [funus, p. 558, a.] GE'NIUS. See Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Biography.
GENOS (7eVos). [tribus, greek.]
GENS. This word contains the same element as the Latin (/e^us, and gi.^w/o, and as the Greek yevos, yi-yv~ouai, &c., and it primarily signifies kin. But the word has numerous significations, which have either a very remote connection with this its primary notion, or perhaps none at all.
Gens sometimes signifies a whole political community, as Gens Latinorum, Gens Campanorum, &c. (Juv. Sat. viii. 239, and Heinrich's note) ; though it is probable that in this application of the term, the notion of a distinction of race or stock is implied, or at least the notion of a totality of persons distinguished from other totalities by sameness of language, community of law, and increase of their numbers among themselves only. Cicero (pro BdtbO) c. 13) speaks of " Geates universae in civitatem receptae, ut Sabinorum, Volscorum, Her-nicorum." It is a consequence of such meaning of Gens, rather than an independent meaning, that the word is sometimes used to express a people simply with reference to their territorial limits.
The meaning of the word in the expression Jus Gentium is explained under Jus.
The words Gens and Gentiles have a special meaning in the system of the Roman law and in the Roman constitution. Cicero (Top. 6) has preserved a definition of Gentiles which was given by Scaevola, the pontifex, and which, with reference to the time, must be considered complete. Those were Gentiles, according to Scaevola, (1) who bore the same name, (2) who were born of freemen (ingenui), (3) none of whose ancestors had been a slave, and (4) who had suffered no capitis diminu-tio. This, definition contains nothing which shows a common bond of union among gentiles, except the possession of a common name ; but those who had a common name were not gentiles, if the three other conditions, contained in this definition, were not applicable to them. There is also a definition of gentilis by Festus: —" That is called Gens Aelia which is composed (conficitur) of many familiae. Gentilis is both one who is of the same stock (gemis), and one who is called by the same name (simili nomine) *, as Cincius says, those are my gentiles who are called by my name."
We cannot conclude any thing more from the conftcitzir of Festus than that a Gens contained several familiae, or that several familiae were comprehended under one Gens, According to the definition, persons of the same genus (kin) were gentiles, and also persons of the same name were gentiles. If Festus meant to say that all persons of the same genus and all persons of.the same name were gentiles, his statement is inconsistent
* " Gentilis dicitur et ex epdem genere ortus, et is qui simili nomine appellatur." The second et is sometimes read ut, which is manifestly not the right reading, as the context shows. Besides, if the words " ut is qui simili nomine appellatur," are to be taken as an illustration, of "ex eodem genere ortus," as they must be if ut is the true reading, then the notion of a eammon name is viewed as of necessity being contained in the notion of common kin, whereas there may be common kin without common name, and common name without common kin. Thus neither does common name include all common kin, nor does common kin include all common name ; yot each includes something that the other includes.
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