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On this page: Galerfculum – Galli



Herefordshire. (Skelton, Engraved lllust. i. pi. 44.) The perforations for the lining and exterior border are visible along its edge, XA side and a front view of it are presented in the annexed woodcut.


worn in the middle ages, have been found at Pom­peii. See the wood-cut to gladiatores.

The five following helmets are selected from an­ tique gems, and are engraved of the size of the originals. [J. Y.J

Two casques very like this were fished up from the "bed of the Alpheus, near Olympia, and are in the possession of Mr. Hamilton. (Dodwell, Tour, vol. ii. p. 330.) Among the materials used for the lining of helmets were felt (tt?aos, Horn. II. x. 265) and sponge. (Aristot. H. A. v. 16.)

The helmet, especially that of skin or leather, was sometimes a mere cap conformed to the shape of the head, without either crest or any other orna­ment (<x<£aAoj/ re Kal &\o<pov, II, x. 358), In this state it was probabty used in hunting (galea vena-toria, C. Nep. Dat. iii. 2,), and was called /carcu-Ti/l (Horn. //. I. c.\ in Latin c.udo. The pre­ceding woodcut shows an example of it as worn by Diomede in a small Greek bronze, which is also in the collection at Goodrich Court. (Skelton, I. c.} The additions by which the external appearance of the helmet was varied, and which served both for ornament and protection, were the following: —

1. Bosses or plates, proceeding either from the top (0aAos, Horn. II. iii. 362) or the sides, and varying in number from one to four (ctjU^i'^aAos, si<£c£aos, Horn. //. v. 743, xi. 41 ; Eustath. ad loc.; T€Tpct<|>aAo5, II. xii. 384). It is however very doubtful what part of the helmet the (j>d\os was. Buttmann thought that it was what was after­wards called the kojvos, that is, a metal ridge in which the plume was fixed ; but Liddell and Scott (Lex. s. v.) maintain with more probability that the (f)d\os was the shade or fore-piece of the helmet; and that an a/x,<£>i<£aAos helmet was one that had a like projection behind as well as before, such as may be seen in the representations of many ancient helmets.

2. The helmet thus adorned was very jeommonly surmounted .by the crest (erista.,. Ao<£os, Horn, II, xxii. 3.16), which was often'of horse-hair ('l-n-rrovpis, nrTroS.dtfem, Horn. II. cc. ; \6(pa>v efleipcu, Theocr. xxii. 186 ; hirsuta juba, Propert. iv. 11. 19), and made so as to look imposing and terrible (Horn. II, iii. 337 ; Virg. Aen, viii. 620), as well as hand­some. (Ib. ix. 365 ; euAo^os, Heliod. Aeth. vii.) The helmet often had two or even three crests. (Aesch. Sep. c. Theb. 384.) In the Roman army of later times the crest served not only for orna­ment, but also to distinguish the different centu­rions, each of whom wore a casque of a peculiar form and appearance. (Veget. ii. 13.)

3. The two cheek-pieces (bucculae, Juv. x. 134 ; Trapcryj/ccflt'Ses-, Eustath. in II. v. 743), which were attached to the helmet by hinges, so as to be lifted up and down. They had buttons or ties at their extremities for fastening the helmet on the head. (Val. Flace. vi. 626.)

4. The beaver, or visor, a peculiar form of which is supposed to have been the av\&Tus Tpu(£c£Aem, e. e. the perforated beaver. (Horn. II. xi. 353.) The gladiators wore helmets of this kind (Juv. Viii, 203), and specimens of them, not unlike those

GALERFCULUM. [galerus.] GALE/RUS or GALE'RUM, was originally a covering for the head worn by priests, espe­cially by the ftamen dial-is (Gell. x. 15"; Serv. ad Virg, Aen. ii 683). It appears to have been a round cap made of leather, with its top ending in an apex or point. [See cut on p. 102.] The word is probably connected wiihgcdea, a helmet. In course of time the name was applied to any kind of cap fitting close to the head like a helmet. (Virg. Aen. vii. 688; Virg. Moret. 121; Suet. Ner. 26.) Galerus and its diminutive Galericulum are also used to signify a covering for the head made of hair, and hence a wig. (Juv. Sat. vi. 120, with the Schol.; Suet. Oth. 12; Mart. xiv. 50.)

GALLI, the priests of Cybele, whose worship was introduced at Rome from Phrygia, in b.c. 204. (Liv. xxix. 10, 14, xxxvi. 36.) The Galli were, according to an ancient custom, always castrated (spadones, semimareSiSemiviri,nee viri nee feminae]^ and it would seem that impelled by religious fana­ticism they performed this operation on themselves.-(Juv. vi. 512, &c. ; Ovid, Fast. iv. 237; Martial, iii. 81, xi. 74; Plin. H. N. xi. 49.) In their wild, enthusiastic, and boisterous rites, they re­sembled the Gory ban tes (Luean. i. 565, &c. ; compare hilaria), and even went further, in as much, as in their fury, they mutilated their own bodies. (Propert. ii. 18. 15.) They seem to have been always chosen from a poor and despised class of people, for while no other priests were allowed to beg, the Galli (famuli Idaeae matris) were allowed to do so on certain days. (Cic. de Leg, ii. 9 and 16.) The chief priest among them was called ar-ehigallus. (Servius, ad Aen. ix. 116.) The origin of the name of Galli is uncertain: according to Festus (s. -y.), Ovid (Fast, iv. 363), and others, it was derived from the river Gallus in Phrygia, which flowed near the temple of Cybele, and the water of which was fabled to put those persons who drank of it into such a state of madness, that they castrated themselves. (Compare Plin. //. N. v. 32, xi. 40, xxxi. 2 ; Herodian. 11.) The sup­position of Hieronymus (Cap. Oseae, 4) that Galli was the name of the Gauls, which had been given to these priests by the Romans in order to show their contempt of that nation, is unfounded, as the Romans must have received the name from Asia, or from the Greeks, by whom, as Suidas (s. v.) in­forms us, Gallus was used as a common noun in the sense of eunuch. There exists a verb galiare^ which signifies to- rage (insa?iare, bacehari}, and

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