The Ancient Library

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Flaminia and the Tiber, and planted round it woods and walks for public use. (Suet. Aug. 100.) The heirs were often ordered by the will of the deceased to build a tomb for him (Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 84 ; Plin. Ep. vi. 10) ; and they sometimes did it at their own expense (de suo)9 which is not un-frequently recorded in the inscription on funeral monuments, as in the following example token from an urn in the British Museum: —

Dns manibvs

L. lepidi epaphrajb

patris qptimi

L. lepidivs

maximvs F.

de Svo.

Sepulchres were originally called busta (Festus,, s. v. Sepulcrum\ but this word was afterwards em­ployed in the manner mentioned above (p. 559, b.). Sepulchres were also frequently called Monumenta Cic. ad Fam. iv. 12. § 3 ; Ovid, Met. xiii. 524),. but this term was also applied to a monument erected to the memory of a person in a different place from where he was buried. (Festus, s. v. ; Cic. pro Sext. 67 ; comp. Dig. 11. tit. 8.) Condi-toria or condition were sepulchres under ground,. in which dead bodies were placed entire, in con­tradistinction to those sepulchres which contained the bones and ashes only. They answered to the Greek vir6yswv or vir6yaioi'.

The tombs of the rich were commonly bult of marble, and the ground enclosed with an iron railing or wall, and planted round with trees. (Cic. <ul Fam. ir. 12, § 3 ; Tibull. iii. 2. 22 ; Suet. Net: 33. 50 ; Martial, i. 89.) The extent of the bury­ing ground was marked by Cippi [CiPPUS]. The name of Mausoleum, which was originally the name of the magnificent sepulchre erected by Artemisia1 to the memory of Mausolus king of Casria (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 4. § 9, xxxv. 49 ; Gell. x. 18),, was sometimes given to any splendid tomb. (Suet.-Aug. 100 ; Pans. viii. 16. § 3.) The open space before a sepulchre was called forum [forum], and



neither this space nor the sepulchre hself could become the property of a person by usucapion. (Cic. de Leg. ii. 24.)

Private tombs were either built by an individual for himself and the members of his family (sepulcra familiaria), or for himself and his heirs (sepulcra hcreditaria, Dig. 11. tit. 7. s. 5). A tomb, which was fitted up with niches to receive the funeral urns, was called columbarium, on account of the resemblance of these niches to the holes of a pigeon-house. In these torabs the ashes of the freedmen and slaves of great families were fre­quently placed in vessels made of baked clay, called ollae, which were let into the thickness of the wall within these niches, the lids only being seen, and the inscriptions placed in front. Several of these columbaria are still to be seen at Rome. One of the most perfect of them, which was dis­covered in the year 1822, at the villa Rufini, about two miles beyond the Porta Pia, is represented in the annexed woodcut.

Tombs were of various sizes and forms, according to the wealth and taste of the owner. The fol­lowing- woodcut, which represents part of the street of tombs at Pompeii, is taken from Mazois, Pom-peiana, part i. pi. 18.

All these tombs were raised on a platform of masonry above the level of the footway. The first building on the right hand is a funeral triclinium, which presents to the street a plain front about twenty feet in length. The next is the family tomb of Naevoleia Tyche ; it consists of a square building, containing a sttftill chamber, and from the level of the outer" wall steps rise, which support a marble cippus richly ornamented. The burial-ground of Nestacidius follows next, which is sur­rounded by a low wall j next to which comes a monument erected to the memory of C. Calventius Quietus. The building is solid, and was not therefore a place of burial, but only an honorary tomb. The wall in front is scarcely four feet high, from which three steps lead up to a cippus. The back rises into a pediment ; and the extreme height of the whole from the footway is about seventeen feet. An unoccupied space intervenes

. between this tomb and the next, which bears no inscription. The last building on the left is the tomb of Scauras, which is ornamented with bas-reliefs representing gladiatorial combats and the hunting of wild beasts.

The tombs of the Romans were ornamented in various ways, but they seldom represented death in a direct manner. (MUller, ArchaoL der Kunst, § 431 ; Lessing, Wie die Alien den To<i gebildet kaben ?*) A horse's head was one of the most common representations of death, as it signi­fied departure ; but we rarely meet with skeletons upon tombs. The following woodcut, however, which is taken from a bas-relief upon one of the tombs of Pompeii, represents the skeleton of a child lying on a heap of stones. The dress of the female, who is stooping over it, is remarkable, and is still preserved, according to Mazois, in the country around Sora. (Mazois, Pomp. i. pi. 29.)

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