The Ancient Library

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cold on thft passage to Hades, nor be seen naked by Cerberus: this garment appears to have been usually white. (II. xviii. 353 ; Artemiod. Oneirocr. ii. 3.) These duties were not performed by hired persons, like the pollinctores among the Romans, but by the women of the family, upon whom the care of the corpse always devolved. (Isaeus, de Philoct. her. p. 143, de Ciron. her. p. 209.)

The corpse was then laid out (Trp60ecris, trpori-Oeffdat) on a bed (K\ivrj\ which appears to have been of the ordinary kind, with a pillow (irpocrKe-(paKoLiov*) for supporting the head and back. (Lys. c. Eratostk. p. 395.) It is said that the bed on which the corpse was laid out was originally placed outside the house (Schol. ad Aristopli. Lysistr. 611) ; but at Athens we know it was placed in­side, by one of Solon's laws. (Dem. c. Macart. p. 1071.) The object of this formal irpoOearts was that it might be seen that the deceased had died naturally, and that no violence had been done to him. (Pollux, viii. 65.) Plato (Leg. xii. 9. p. 959) assigns another reason, namely, that there might be no doubt that the person was dead, and says, that the body ought only to be kept in the house so long as it may be necessary to ascertain that fact. By the side of the bed there were placed painted earthen vessels, called \^)Kvdoi (Aristoph. Eccl. 1032, 996), which were also buried with the corpse ; examples of which may be seen in the drawings of the coffins given lay Bottiger ( Vaseng. title-page) and Stackelberg(Z>ze Gr'aher der Hellenen, pi. 8). Great numbers of these painted vases have been found in modern times ; and they have been of great use in explaining many matters connected with antiquity. A honey-cake, called (J.e\irrovrat which appears to have been intended for Cerberus, was also placed by the side of the corpse. (Aristoph. Lysistr. 601, with Schol. ; compare Virg. Aen. vi. 419.) Before the door a vessel of water was placed, called ocrrpaKov, apfi&Xwv or apfiaviov, in order that persons who had been in the house might purify themselves by sprinkling water on their persons. (Aristoph. Eccl. 1033 ; Pollux, viii. 65 ; Hesych. s. v. 5Ap5.) The relatives stood around the bed, the women uttering great lamentations, rending their garments and tearing their hair. (Lucian. 75. 12.) Solon attempted to put a stop to this (Plut. Sol. 12. 21), but his regulations on the subject do not appear to have been generally observed. It was formerly the practice to sacrifice victims before carrying out the dead ; but this custom was not observed in the time of Plato. (Min. p. 315.) No females under 60 years of age, except the nearest relations (eWbs aj/e^mSco*/), were allowed to be present while the corpse was in the house. (Dem. c. Macart. p. 1071.)

On the day after the Trp60scris9 or the third day after death, the corpse was carried out (e/c<j>opa, e/c/cOjiuST)) for burial, early in the morning and be­fore sunrise, by a law of Solon, which law appears to have been revived by Demetrius Phalereus. (Dem. I. c.; Antiph. de Chor. p. 782 j Cic. de Leg. ii. 26.) A burial soon after death was sup­posed to be pleasing to the dead. Thus we find the shade of Patroclus saying to Achilles (II. xxiii. 71).

@carT6 jute httl rc^nrra, irv\as al'Sao irepricra). (Compare Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 53.) In some places it appears to have been usual to bury the dead on the day following death. (Callim. Epigr. 15 ; Diog. Laert. i. 122.) The men walked before the



corpse and the women behind. (Dem. 7. c.) The funeral procession was preceded or followed by hired mourners (frprjvcpdoi), who appear to have been usually Carian women, though Plato speaks of men engaged in this office. They played mourn­ful tunes on the flute. (Plat. Leg. vii. 9. p. 800 ; Hesych. s. v. Kapivai • Pollux, iv. 75.)

The body was either buried or burnt. Lucian (Ib. 21) says that the Greeks burn and the Per­sians bury their dead ; but modern writers are greatly divided in opinion as to which was the usual practice. Wachsmuth says that in historical times the dead were always buried ; but this state­ment is not strictly correct. Thus we find that Socrates speaks of his body being either burnt or buried (Plat. Phaed. p. 115) ; the body of Timoleon was burnt (Plut. Timol. 39), and so was that of Philopoemen. (Id. Philop. 21.) The word drdirTsiv is used in connection with either mode ; it is applied to the collection of the ashes after burning, and ac­cordingly we find the words Kcdtiv and frdtrTeiv used together. (Dionys. Ant. Rom. v. 48.) The proper expression for interment in the earth ia KaropvrTeiv, whence we find Socrates speaking of t& 0*ctj/.ta 3) Ka6/jiGvov $) KaropUTT^/xez/oj/. In Homer the bodies of the dead are burnt (II. xxiii. 127, &c., xxiv. 787, &c.) ; but interment was also used in very ancient times. Cicero (de Leg. ii. 25) says that the dead were buried at Athens in the time of Cecrops ; and we also read of the bones of Ores­tes being found in a coffin at Tegea. (Herod, i. 68 ; compare Plut. Sol. 10.) The dead were commonly buried among the Spartans (Plut. Lye. 27 ; com­pare Thucyd. i. 134) and the Sicyonians (Paus. ii. 7. § 3) ; and the prevalence of this practice is proved by the great number of skeletons found in coffins in modern times, which have evidently not been exposed to the action of fire. Both burning and burying appear to have been always used to a greater or less extent at different periods ; till the spread of Christianity at length put an end to the former practice.

The dead bodies were usually burnt on piles of wood, called Trvpai. The body was placed on the top ; and in the heroic times it was customary to burn with the corpse animals and even captives or slaves. Thus at the funeral of Patroclus, Achilles killed many sheep, oxen, horses, and dogs, and also twelve captive Trojans, whose bodies he burnt with those of his friend. (//. xxiii. 165, &c.) Oils and perfumes were also thrown into the flames When the pyre was burnt down, the remains of the fire were quenched with wine, and the relatives and friends collected the bones. (II. xxiv. 791.) The bones were then washed with wine and oil, and placed in urns, which were sometimes made of gold. (Od. xxiv. 71, &c.)

The corpses, which were not burnt, were buried in coffins, which were called by various names, as (ropoi, TrueAot, \v]VQi9 \dpva.Kes9 Spoirai, though some of these names are also applied to the urns in which the bones were collected. They were made of various materials, but were usually of baked clay or earthenware. Their forms are very various, as may be seen by a reference to Stackel-berg (Die Gr'dber der Hellenen, pi. 7, 8). The pre-

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