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vol. ii. p. 163, &c. ; Mommsen, Die Romischen Trious, Altona, 1844, which work contains the best account of the subject; Kuhn, Ueber die Korn-einfu.hr in Rom im Altertlmm^ in the Zeitsclirift Jur die Alterthumswissenschqft, 1845, pp. 993— 1008, 1073—1084 ; Rein, in the Real-Encyclo-p'ddie der dassischen Alterthumswissenscliaft^ art. Largitio ; liockh, Romisclie Gescfdclde, vol. i. part ii. p. 138, &c., p. 384, &c. ; Walter, Geseldclite des RomischenJRecUs, §§ 276—278, 360, 361, 2nd ed. FRUMENTA'RII, officers under the Roman empire, who acted as spies in the provinces, and reported to the emperors anything which they considered of importance. (Aurel. Vict. De Caes. 39, sub fin. ; Spartian. Hadrian. 11 ; Capitol. Ma-crin. 12, Commod. 4.) They appear to have been called Frumentarii because it was their duty to collect information in the same way as it was the duty of other officers, called by the same name, to collect corn. They were accustomed to accuse persons falsely, and their office was at length abolished by Diocletian. ~We frequently find in inscriptions mention made of Fmrnentarii belonging to particular legions (Orelli, Inscr. 74, 3491, 4922), from which it has been supposed that the frumentarii, who acted as spies, were soldiers attached to the legions in the provinces ; they may, however, have been different officers, whose duty it was to distribute the corn to the legions.
FUCUS (<£uk:os), was the general 'term to signify the paint Avhich the Greek and Roman ladies employed in painting their cheeks, eye-brows, and other parts of their faces. The practice of painting the face was very general among the Greek ladies, and probably came into fashion in consequence of their sedentary mode of life, which robbed their complexions of their natural freshness, and induced them to have recourse to artificial means for restoring the red and white of nature. This at the least is the reason given, by some of the ancient writers themselves. (Xen. Oecon. 10. § 10 ; Phintys, ap. Stobaeum, tit. Ixxiv. 61.) The practice, however, was of great antiquity among the Greeks, and was probably first introduced among the Asiatic lonians from the East, where the custom has prevailed from the earliest times. That it was as ancient as the time of Homer is inferred from the expression eTnxpttracra trapeius (Od. xviii. 172), but this is perhaps hardly sufficient to prove that the cheeks were painted. The ladies at Athens, as might have been expected, did not always paint their faces when at home, but only had recourse to this adornment when they went abroad or wished to appear beautiful or captivating. Of this we have a striking example in the speech of Lysias on the murder of Eratosthenes, in which it is related (p. 93. 20, ed. Steph.) that the wife, after leaving her husband to visit her paramour, painted herself which the husband observed on the following morning, remarking, e5o£e 5e juoi -rb TrpoVcoTrw e^i/Jivdi&ffOai. (Comp. Aristoph. Lysistr, 149, jEbcZ. 878, Plut. 1064 ; Pint. Alcib. 39.) In order to give a blooming colour to the cheeks, cryxovtra or eyxoucra, a red, obtained from the root of a plant, was most frequently employed (Xen. Oecan. 10. § 2) ; arid the following paints were also used to produce the same colour, namely, TrafSepow, also a vegetable dye resembling the rosy hue on the cheeks of young children (Alexis, ap. Athen. xiii.
p. 568, c), ffvK.dfj.ivov (Eubulis, ap. Athen. xiii. p. 557, f), and c^G/cos, which was probably a red paint, though used to signify paint in general, as has been already remarked. In order to produce a fair complexion, ;j/ijuu0ioz>, cerussa, white lead was employed. (Alexis, ap. Athen. L c. ; Xen. Oeeon. 10. §2 ; Aristoph. Ecd. 878, 929.) The eye-brows and eye-lids were stained black with (m'jUjUt or cTTi'^uis, a sulphuret of antimony, which is still employed by the Turkish ladies for the same purpose. (Pollux, v. 101.) The eye -brows were likewise stained with acrgoAos, a preparation of soot. Thus Alexis says (I. c.),
(Comp. Juv. ii. 93.) Ladies, who used paint, were occasionally betrayed by perspiration, tears, &c., of which a humorous picture is given by the comic poet Eubulus (ap. Athen. Z.c.), and by Xenophon (Oecon. 1 0. § 8). It would appear from Xenophon (Ibid. § 5) that even in his time men sometimes used paint, and in later times it may have been still more common : Demetrius Phalereus is expressly said to have done so. (Duris, ap. Athen. xii. p. 542, d.)
Among the Romans the art of painting the complexion was carried to a still greater extent than among the Greeks ; and even Ovid did not disdain to write a poem on the subject, which he calls (deArt. Am. iii. 206) " parvus, sed cura grande. libellus, opus ; ' • though the genuineness of the fragment of the Medicamina fatiei) ascribed to this poet, is doubtful. The Roman ladies even went so far as to paint with blue the veins on the temples, as we may infer from Propertius (ii. 14. 27), " si caeruleo quaedam sua tempora fuco tinxerit." The ridiculous use of patches (splenia)^ which were common among the English ladies in the reign of Queen Anne and the first Georges, was not unknown to the Roman ladies. (Mart. ii. 29. 9, x. 22 ; Plin. Ep. vi. 2.) The more effeminate of the male sex at Rome also employed paint. Cicero speaks (in Pison. 11) of the cerussatae buccae of his enemy, the consul Piso.
On a Greek vase (Tischbein, Engravings, ii. 58) we see the figure of a female engaged in putting the paint upon her face with a small brush. This figure is copied in Bottiger's Sabina (pi. ix.), (Comp. Becker, Charildes, vol. ii. p. 232, &c. ; Bottiger, Sabina, vol. i. p. 24, &c., p. 51, &c.)
FUGA LATA. [exsilium.]
FUGA LIBERA. [exsilium.]
FULLO (Kvafyzvs, yvatyevs), also called NACCA (Festus, s. v. • Apul. Met. ix. p. 206, Bipont), a fuller, a washer or scourer of cloth arid linen. The fullones not only received the cloth as it came from the loom in order to scour and smooth it, but also washed and cleansed garments which had been already worn. As the Romans generally wore woollen dresses, which were often of a light colour, they frequently needed, in the hot climate of Italy, a thorough purification. The way in which this was done has been described by Pliny and other ancient writers, but is most clearly explained by some paintings which have been found on, the walls of a fullonica at Pompeii, Two of these paintings are given by Gell (Pompeiana, vol. ii. pi. 51, 52), and the whole of them in the Miiseo Borbonico (vol. iv. pi. 49, 50) ; from the
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