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On this page: Forceps – Fores – Forfex – Fori – Formula – Fornacalia

FORFEX,

FORNACALIA.

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also sculptured over the fountains, as among the Greeks; thus at Rome, there were the fountains of Ganymede and Prometheus, and the Nymphaeum of Jupiter. (Stieglitz, ArcU'dol. d. Baukunst, vol. ii. pt. 2. pp. 76, 79 ; Hirt, Lehre der Geb'dude. pp. 399, 403.) f [P. S.]

FORCEPS (TTvpdypa), tongs or pincers, need no further explanation here, as they were used in antiquity for the same purposes as they are in modern times. They were invented, as the ety­mology indicates, for taking hold of what is hot (forvwn, Festus, s. v. ; Servius, ad Virg. Georg. iv. 175, Aen. viii. 453, xii. 404), used by smiths, find therefore attributed to Vulcan and the Cy­clopes. (Virg. II. cc. ; Horn. II. xviii. 477, Od. iii. 434 ; Callim. in Del. 144 ; forcipe curva, Ovid, Met. xii. 277.) [!ncus ; malleus.]

FORES. [janua.]

FORFEX, dim. FORFICULA (ipa\fe, dim. ^a/V:5ioi/), shears (Serv. in Virg. Aen. viii. 453), used, 1. in shearing sheep, as represented in the annexed woodcut, which is taken from a carnelian

in the Stosch collection of antique gems at Berlin ; 2. in cutting hair (Eurip. Orest. 954 ; Schol. inloc.', Brunck, Anal. iii. 9 ; Virg. Catal. vii. 9 ; ferro bidenti, Ciris, 21 3) ; 3. in clipping hedges, myrtles, and other shrubs ($a\i<TTol juuppjyw/'es, Hierocles, op. Stob. Serm. 65.)

In military manoeuvres the forfex was a tenaille,

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i. e. a body of troops arranged in the form of an acute angle, so as to receive and overcome the op­posite body, called a Cuneus. (Gell. x. 9 ; Amm. Marc. xvi. 11.)

In architecture the term tyaXis denoted a con-' structipn which was probably the origin of the arch (Macculloch's West. Islands, i. p. 142, iii. p. 49), consisting of two stones leaning against each other

so as to form an acute angle overhead, as is seen in the entrance to the pyramid of Cheops and in the ruins of Mycenae; and gradually brought nearer to the forms which we now employ. (See woodcut, p. 125.) (Plat. De Leg. xii. p. 292. ed. Bekker ; Diod. Sic. ii. 9.) [J. Y.]

FORI. [navis ; circus, p. 283, b,J FORMA, dim. FORMULA, second dim. FOR­ ME LL A (ti^ttos), a pattern, a mould ; any con­ trivance adapted to convey its own shape to some plastic or flexible material, including moulds for making pottery, pastry, cheese, bricks, and coins. The moulds for coins were made of a kind of stone, which was indestructible by heat. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 49.) The mode of pouring into them the melted metal for casting the coins will be best understood from the annexed woodcut, which re­ presents one side of a mould, engraved by Seroux

d'Agmcourt.. Moulds were also employed in making walls of the kind, now called pise, which were built in Africa, in Spain, and about Tarentum. (Varro, De Re Rust, i. 14 ; Pallad. i. 34 ; parietes formacei, Plin. H. N. xxxv. 48.) The shoe­maker's last was also called forma (Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 106) and tehtipelliwn (Festus, s. #.), in Greek Ka\6irovs. (Plato, Conviv. p. 404, ed. Bekker.)

The spouts and channels of aquae ducts are called formae, perhaps from their resemblance to some of the moulds included in the above enumeration. (Frontin. De Aquaeduct. 75, 126.) [J. Y.]

FORMULA. [AcTio.]

FORNACALIA, a festival in honour of Fornax, the goddess of furnaces, in order that the corn might be properly baked. (Festus, s. v.) This ancient festival is said to have been instituted by Numa. (Plin. H. N. xviii. 2.) The time for its celebration was proclaimed every year by the Curio Maximus, who announced in tablets, which were placed in the forum, the different part which each curia had to take in the celebration of the festival. Those persons who did not know to what curia they belonged, performed the sacred rites on the Quirinalia, called from this circumstance the Stul-torum fericce, which fell on the last day of the Fornacalia. (Ovid, Fasten. 527 ; Varro, DeLmg*

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