The Ancient Library

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On this page: Foedus – Foenus – Follis – Fons


the same privilege that was offered to himself. The people of a state which had accepted the Roman civitas (fundus factus est\ were called, in reference to their condition after such acceptance, "fundani." This word only occurs in the Latin inscription (the Lex Romana) of the tablet of Heraclea, 1. 85, and proves that the inscription is posterior to the Lex Julia de Civitate. It has indeed been supposed that the word may refer to the acceptance by the state of Heraclea of this lex which is on the tablet; but there is no doubt that it refers to the prior lex which gave the civitas. [ fund us.]

It must be observed that the acceptance of the two Leges above mentioned could only refer to the federate states, and the few old Latin states. The Latinae coloniae also received the civitas by the Julia Lex ; but as they were under the sovereignty of Rome, their consent to the provisions of this lex was not required.

Before the passing of the Julia Lex, it was not unusual for the Socii and Latini to adopt Roman leges into their own system, as examples of which Cicero mentions the Lex Furia de Testamentis, and the Lex Voconia de Mulierum Hereditatibus ; and he adds that there were other instances. (Pro Balbo, c. 8.) In such cases, the state which adopted a Roman lex was said * in earn legem fundus fieri." It hardly needs remark that the state which adopted a Roman lex, did not-thereby obtain for its citizens any privileges with respect to the Roman state : the federate state merely adopted the provisions of the Roman lex as being-applicable to its own circumstances.

An apparent difficulty is caused by the undoubted fact, that the provisions of the Lex Julia required that the states which wished to avail themselves of its benefits, should consent to accept them. As the federate states commenced the war in order to obtain the civitas, it may be asked why was it given to them on the condition of becoming " fun­dus ?" In addition to the reasons for such con­dition, which are suggested by Savigny, it may be observed that the lex only expressed in terms what would necessarily have been implied, if it had not been expressed: a federate state must of necessity declare by a public act its consent to accept such a proposal as was contained in the Lex Julia. It appears from the cases of Heraclea and Naples, that the citizens of a federate state were not in all cases unanimous in changing their former alliance with Rome into an incorporation with the Roman state. [ civitas.]

There were federate cities beyond the limits of Italy, as shown by the example of Gades: Sagim- tum arid Massilia also are enumerated among such cities. (Savigny, Volksschluss dcr Tafel Van Hera- dca^ Zeitsclirift) &c. vol. ix.; Mazochi, Tab. Home. p. 465.) [G. L.J


FOENUS. [fenus.]

FOLLIS, dim. FOLLI'CULUS, an inflated ball of leather, perhaps originally the skin of a quadruped filled with air: Martial (iv. 19) calls it " light as a feather." Boys and old men among the Romans threw, it from one to another with their arms and hands as a gentle exercise of the body, unattended with danger. (Mart. vii. 31, xiv. 45, 47 ; Athen. i. 25.) The emperor Au­gustus (Suet. Aug. 83) became fond of the exercise as he grew old. (See Beckcr, Gallus. vol. i. p. 271.)



The term/ollis is also applied to a leather purse or bag (Plant. AuL ii. 4. 23 ; Juv. xiv. 281) ; and the diminutive folliculus to the swollen capsule of a plant, the husk of a seed, or anything of similar appearance. (Senec. Nat. Quaest. v. 18 ; Tertull. De Res. Cam. 52.)

Two inflated skins (8vo tyixrai, Herod, i. 68 ; {coTrupa, Ephor. Frag. p. 188 ; irpr)<rryp€s, Apoll. Rhod. iv. 763, 777), constituting a, pair of bellows, and having valves adjusted to the natural apertures at one part for admitting the air, and a pipe in­ serted into another part for its emission, were an essential piece of furniture in every forge and foun­ dry. (11. xviii. 372—470 ; Virg. Aen. viii. 449.) According to the nature and extent of the work to be done the bellows were made of the hides of oxen (taurinis foUibus, Virg. Georg. iv. 171), or of goats (hircinis, Hor. Sat. i. 4. 19), and other smaller animals. The nozzle of the bellows was called aicpotyixriov or d/cpocrrojUioj/ (Thucyd. iv. 100 ; Eust. in II. xviii. 470). In bellows made after the fashion of those exhibited in the lamp here introduced from Bartoli (Ant. Lucerne, iii. 21), we may imagine the skin to have been placed be­ tween the two boards so as to produce a machine like that which we now employ. [J. Y. ]

FONS (i<pwf)\ signifies originally a natural spring of water, but both the Greeks and Romans had artificial fountains, made either by covering and decorating a spring with buildings and sculp­ture, or by making a jet or stream of water, sup­plied by an elevated cistern, play into an artificial basin. Such fountains served the double purpose of use and ornament. Among the Greeks, they formed the only public supply of water except the rain-water which was collected in cisterns [aquae-ductus] ; and at Rome, the poorer people, who could not afford to have water laid on to their houses, no doubt procured it from the public foun­tains.

Several examples of natural springs, converted into ornamented fountains, in the cities of Greece, have been mentioned under aquaeductus. They were covered to keep them pure and cool, and the covering was frequently in the form of a monopteral temple: there were also statues, the subjects of which were suggested by the circumstance that every fountain was sacred to some divinity, or they were taken from the whole range of mythological legends. That at Megara, erected by Theagenes, is described by Pausanias as worth seeing for its size, its beauty, and the number of its columns (i. 40. § 1). That of Peirene at Corinth was adorned with covered cisterns of white marbl? like grottoey,

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