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privations, a long cotalogue of which has been compiled by Aulus Gellius (x. 15) from the works of Fabius Pictor and Masurius Sabinus, while Plu-tarch, in his Roman Questions, endeavours to explain their import. Among these were the following : —
It was unlawful for him to be out of the city for a single night (Liv. v. 52) ; a regulation which seems to have been modified by Augustus, in so far that an absence of two nights was permitted (Tacit. Ann. iii. 58. 71); and he was forbidden to sleep out of his own bed for three nights consecutively. Thus, it was impossible for him to undertake the government of a province. He might not mount upon horseback, nor even touch a horse, nor look upon an army marshalled without the pomoe-riuin, and hence was seldom elected to the consulship. Indeed, it would seem that originally he was altogether precluded from seeking or accepting any civil magistracy (Pint. Q. R. p. 169) ; but this last prohibition was certainly not enforced in later times. The object of the above rules was manifestly to make him literally Jovi adsiduum sacer-dotem ; to compel constant attention to the duties of the priesthood ; to leave him in a great measure without any temptation to neglect them. The origin of the superstitions which we shall next enumerate is not so clear, but the curious will find abundance of speculation in Plutarch (Q. R. pp. 114, 118, 164—170), Festus (s. v. Edera and Equo\ and Pliny (PL N. xviii. 30, xxviii. 40). He was not allowed to swear an oath (Liv. xxxi. 50), nor to wear a ring *' nisi pervio et casso^ that is, as they explain, it, unless plain and without stones (Kirchmann, De Annulis, p. 14) ; nor to strip himself naked in the open air, nor to go out without his proper head-dress, nor to have a knot in any part of his attire, nor to walk along a path over-canopied by vines. He might not touch flour, nor leaven, nor leavened bread, nor a dead body : he might not enter a bustum [ fun us], but was not prevented from attending a funeral. Pie was forbidden either to touch or to name a dog, a she-goat, ivy, beans, or raw flesh. None but a free man might cut his hair ; the clippings of which, together with the parings of his nails, were buried beneath afelix arbor. No one might sleep in his bed, the legs of which were smeared with fine clay ; and it was unlawful to place a box containing sacrificial cakes in contact with the bedstead.
Flaminica was the name given to the wife of the dialis. He was required to wed a virgin according to the ceremonies of confarreatio, which regulation also applied to the two other flamines majores (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iv. 104, 374 ; Gaius, i. 112) ; and he could not marry a second time. Hence, since her assistance was essential in the performance of certain ordinances, a divorce was not permitted, and if she died the dialis was obliged to resign. The restrictions imposed upon the flaminica were similar to those by which her husband was fettered. (Aul. Gell. x.'15.) Her dress consisted of a dyed robe (venenato operitur) ; her hair was plaited up with a purple band in a conical form (tutulus) ; and she wore a small square cloak with a border (rica)^ to which was attached a slip cut from a felise arbor. (Fest. s. v. Tutulum, Rica; Varro, De Ling. Lat. vii. 44.) It is difficult to determine what the rica really was ; whether a short cloak, as appears most pro-
bable, or a napkin thrown over the Lead. Slie was prohibited from mounting a staircase consisting of more than three steps (the text of Aulus Gellius is uncertain, but the object must have been to prevent her ancles from being seen); and when she went to the argei [argei] she neither combed nor arranged her hair. On each of the nundinae a ram was sacrificed to Jupiter in the regia by the flaminica. (Macrob. i. 16.)
After the death of the flamen Merula, who was chosen consul suffectus on the expulsion of Cmna (Veil. Pat. ii. 20 ; Val. Max. ix. 12. § 5), and who, upon the restoration of the Marian faction, shed his own blood in the sanctuary (b. c. 87), calling down curses on his enemies with his dying breath (Veil. Pat. ii. 22), the priesthood remained vacant until the consecration of .Servius Maluginensis (b. c. 11) by Augustus, then Pontifex Maximus. Julius Caesar had indeed been nominated in his 17th year, but was never installed ; and during the whole of the above period the duties of the office were discharged by the Pontifex Maximus. (Suet. Jul. c. 1, compared with Veil. Pat. ii. 43, and the Commentators. See also Suet. Octav. 31 ; Dion Cass, liv. 36 ; Tacit. Ann. iii. 58. The last quoted historian, if the text be correct, states the interruption lasted for 72 years only.)
The municipal towns also had their flam ens. Thus the celebrated affray between Milo and Clodius took place while the former was on his way to Lanuvium, of which he was then dictator, to declare the election of a flamen (ad flaminem pro-denduvi). After the deification of the emperors, flamens were appointed to superintend their worship in Rome and in all the provinces ; and we find constantly in inscriptions such titles as flamen augustalis ; flamen tiberii cae&aris ; flamen D. julii, &c., and sometimes flamen dj-vorum omnium (sc. imperatorum).
Flaminia^ according to Festus, was also a name given to a little priestess (sacerdotida}, who assisted the flaminica in her duties. [~W. R.]
FLAMMEUM. [matrimonium. j
FLORALIA, or Florales Ludi, a festival which was celebrated at Rome in honour of Flora or Chloris, It was solemnized during" five davs, beginning on the 28th of April and ending on the 2dof May. (Ovid, Fast. v. 185; Plin. H. N. xviii. 69.) It was said to have been instituted at Rome in 238 b. c., at the command of an oracle in the Sibylline books, for the purpose of obtaining from the goddess the protection of the blossoms (ut omnia bene dejlorescerent^ Plin. 1. c. ; coin-pare Veil. Pat. i. 14 ; Varro, De Re Rust. i. 1). Some time after its institution at Rome its celebration was discontinued ; but in the consulship of L. Postumius Albimis and M. Popilius Laenas (173 b.c.), it was restored, at the command of the senate, by the aedile C. Servilius (Eckhel, De Num. Vet. v. p. 308 ; compare Ovid, Fast. v. 329, &c.), as the blossoms in that year had severely suffered from winds, hai], and rain. The celebration was, as usual, conducted by the ae,diles (Cic. inVerr. v. 14 ; Valer. Max. ii. 10. § 8; Eckhel, I. c.), and was carried on with excessive merriment, drinking, and lascivious games. (Mart