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was knotted with bones or heavy indented circles of bronze or terminated by hooks, in which case it was aptly denominated a scorpion. The cut below represents a scourge taken from a bas-relief of the statue of Cybele in the Museum of the Capitol at Rome, and fully justifies the epithet of Horace (/. c.^liorribileflagelluin. The infliction of punish­ ment with it upon the naked back of the sufferer (Juv. vi. 382) was sometimes fatal (Hor. Sat. \. 2. 41), and was carried into execution by a class of persons, themselves slaves, who were called lorarii. A slave who had been flogged was called flagrio ({Jt-ao-riyias, Philemon, p. 415. ed.. Mein. ; Aristoph. Ran. 502, Equit. 1225, Lys* 1242 ; mastiff ia, Plautus, passim ; Ter. Adelph. v. 2. 6), which of course became a term of mockery and contempt. During the Saturnalia the scourge was deposited under the seal of the master. We like­ wise find that some gladiators fought with the flagella (Tertull. Apol. 21), as in the coin here introduced. The flagellum here has two lashes. (See also cut, p. 101.) [J. Y.]

FLAMEN, the name for any Roman priest who was devoted to the service of one particular


Leg. ii. 8), and who received a distinguishing epithet from the deity to whom he ministered. (Horum^ sc. flaminum, si?iguli cognomina Jiabent fib eo deo quoi Sacra faciunt^ Varro, De Ling. Lot. v. 84.) The most dignified were those attached to Diiovis, Mars, and Quirinus, the Flamen Dialis, Flamen Martialis^ and Flamen Quirinalis. The two first are said by Plutarch (Num. c. 7) to have been established by Romulus ; but the greater num­ber of authorities agree in referring the institution of the whole three, in common with all other matters connected with state religion, to Numa. (Liv. i. 20 ; Dionys. ii. 64. &c.) The number was eventually increased to fifteen (Fest. s. v. Maooimae dignationis): the three original flamens were always chosen from among the patricians, and styled Majores (Gains, i. 112); the rest from the plebeians, with the epithet Mmores (Fest. Majores Flamines\ Two rude lines of Ennius (Varro, de Ling. Lat. vii. 44) preserve the names of six of these, appointed, says the poet, by Numa,—

Volturnalcm, Palatualem, Furinalem, Floralemque^ Falacrem et Pomonalem fecit Hie idem.....

to which we may add the Flamen Volcanalis


(Varro, De Ling. Lat. v. 84), and the Flamen Carmentalis (Cic. Brut. 14). We find in books of antiquities mention made of the Virbialis, Lauren-tmlis, Lavinalis^ and Lucidlaris^ which would cora-


plete the list; but there is nothing to prove that these four were Roman and not merely provincial priests.

It is generally stated, upon the authority of Aulus Gellius (xv. 27), that the flamens were elected at the Comitia Curiata, and this was doubt­less the case in the earlier times ; but upon ex­amining the passage in question, it will be seen that the grammarian speaks of their induc­tion into office only, and therefore we may con­clude that subsequently to the passing of the Lex Domitia they were chosen in the Comitia Tributa, especially since so many of them were plebeians. After being nominated by the people, they were received (capti) and installed (inaugurabantur} by the Pontifex Maximus (Liv. xxvii. 8, xxix. 38 ; Val. Max. vi. 9. § 3), to whose authority they were at all times subject. (Liv. Epit. xix., xxxvii. 51 ; Val. Max. i. 1. § 2.)

The office was understood to last for life ; but a flamen might be compelled to resign (ftaminio abire) for a breach of duty, or even on account of the occurrence of an ill-omened accident while dis­charging his functions. (Val. Max. i. 1. § 4.)

Their characteristic dress was the apex [apex], the laena [laena], and a laurel wreath. The name, according to Varro and Festus, was derived from the band of white wool (filum, fdamen,fta-men) which was wrapped round the apex, and which they wore, without the apex, when the heat was oppressive. (Serv. Virg. Aen. viii. 664.) This etymology is more reasonable than the transforma­tion Qipileamines (from pileus) misflamines. (Plu­tarch, NiLin. 7.) The most distinguished of all the flamens was the Dialis; the lowest in rank the Pomonalis. (Festus, s. v. Maximae dignationis.}

The former enjoyed many peculiar honours. When a vacancy occurred, three persons of patri­cian descent, whose parents had been married ac­cording to the ceremonies of confarreatio [mar­riage], were nominated by the Comitia, one of whom was selected (captus\ and consecrated (in-augurabatur} by the Pontifex Maximus. (Tacit. Ann. iv. 16 ; Liv. xxvii. 8.) From that time for­ward he was emancipated from the control of his father, and became sui juris. (Gains, i. 130 ; Ulpian, Frag. x. 5 ; Tac. Ann. iv. 16.) He alone of all priests wore the albogalerus [apex] (Varro, ap. Gell. x. 15) ; he had a right to a lictor (Pint. Q. R. p. 119, ed. Reiske), to the toga praeteccta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the senate in virtue of his office. This last privilege, after having been suffered to fall into disuse for a long period, was asserted by C. Valerius Flaccus (b, c. 209), and the claim allowed, more, however, says Livy, in deference to his high personal character from a conviction of the justice of the demand. (Liv. xxvii. 8; compare i. 20.) The Rex Sacrificu-lus alone was entitled to recline above him at a banquet: if one in bonds took refuge in his house, the chains were immediately struck off and con­veyed through the impluvium to the roof, and thence cast clown into the street (Aul. Gell. x. 15): if a criminal on his way to punishment met him, and fell suppliant at his feet, he was respited for that day (Aul. Gell. x. 1 5 : Plut. Q. R. p. 166) ; usages which remind us of the right of' sanctuary attached to the persons and dwellings of the papal cardinals.

To counterbalance these high honours, the Dialis was subjected to a multitude of restrictions and

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