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On this page: Flabellum – Flagrum

FLABELLUM.

FLAG RUM.

53.9

480 —

360 —

240 —

180 —

120 —

96* —

60 —

Quadragenaria — 40

rri * • o A

J. ncenana — 60

Vicenaria — 20

Quindena — 15

Dena — 10

Octona — 8

Quinaria — 5

From this scale it is evident, at a mere glance, that the thickness of the plates was the same for pipes of all sizes, namely, such that each strip of lead, ten feet long and one digit wide, weighed twelve pounds. The account of Vitruvius is followed by Pliny (H. N. xxxi. 6. s. 31) and Palladius (ix. 12 : comp. the notes of Schneider and Gesner).

Frontimis, who enters into the subject much more minutely, objects to the system of Vitruvius as too indefinite, on account of the variation which is made in the shape of the pipe in bending up the plate of lead ; and he thinks it more probable that the names were derived from the length of the in­ternal diameters, reckoned in qitadrantes (the unit being the digit), that is, in quarters of a digit; so that the Quinaria had a diameter of five fourths of a digit, or 1^ digit, and so on, up to the Vicenaria., above which the notation was altered, and the names were no longer taken from the number of linear quarters of a digit in the diameter of the pipe, but from the number of square quarters of a digit in its area, and this system prevailed tip to the Centum-vicena^ which was the largest size in use, as the Quinaria was the smallest: the latter is adopted by Frontimis as the standard measure {modulus) of the whole system. (For further details see Fron­timis, de Aquaed. 20—63, pp. 70—112, with, the Notes of Polenus.) Another mode of explaining the nomenclature was by the story that when Agrippa undertook the oversight of the aquaeducts, finding the modulus inconveniently small, he en­larged it to five times its diameter, and hence the origin of the fistula quinaria. (Frontin. 25, pp. 80, 81.) Of these accounts that of Vitruvius appears at once the most simple and the most correct: in­deed it would seem that the plan of measurement was very probably the invention of Vitruvius him­self. (Frontin. I. c.) Respecting the uses of pipes in the aqueducts, see aquaeductus.

Of the earthen (terra-cotta) pipes we know very little. Pliny says that they are best when their thickness is two digits (1-i- inch), and that each pipe should have its end inserted in the next, and the joints should be cemented ; but that leaden pipes should be used where the water rises. The earthen pipes were thought more wholesome than the leaden. (Plin. //. N. xxxi. 6. s. 31 ; Vitruv. 1. c. § 10 ; Pallad. ix. 11.) Water pipes were also made of leather (Plin. H.N. v. 31. s. 34; Vitruv. /. c. § 8) ; and of wood (Pallad. I. c.), especially of the hollowed trunks of the pine, fir, and alder. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 42. s. 81.) [P. S.]

FLABELLUM, dim. FLABELLULUM, (ptTTi's, piTnoT'/jp, dim. /5i7n5(oj>), a fan. " The ex-ercise of the fan," so wittily described by Addison (Sped. No. 102), was wholly unknown to the ancients. Neither were their fans so constructed

* Pliny and Palladius, and even the ancient MSS. of Vitruvius, give here C, which, however, is clearly an error of a transcriber who did not perceive the law of the proportion, but who had a fancy foi the round number.

that they might be furled, unfurled, and ilutteredj nor were they even carried by the ladies themselves. They were, it is true, of elegant forms, of delicate olours (prasino fiabello, Mart. iii. 40), and* some­times of costly and splendid materials, such as pea­cock's feathers (Propert. ii. 15) ; but they were stiff and of a fixed shape, and were held by female slaves (ftabettiferae, Philemon, as translated by Plaut. Trin. ii. 1. 22), by beautiful boys (Strato, Epig. 22), or by eunuchs (Eurip. Orest. 1408— 1412 ; Menander, p. 175, ed. Meineke ; and as translated by Terence, Eun. iii. 5. 45—54), whose dut}- it was to wave them so as to produce a cool­ing breeze. (Brunck, Anal.iL 92.) A gentleman might, nevertheless, take the fan into his own hand and use it in fanning a lady as a compliment. (Ovid, ^i?-s Am. i. 161, Amor. iii. 2. 38.) The woodcut at p. 257 shows a female bestowing this attendance upon her mistress. The fan which she holds is apparently made of separate feathers joined at the base, and also united both by a thread pass • ing along the tips and by another stronger thread tied to the middle of the shaft of each feather. Another use of the fan was to drive away flies from living persons, and from articles of food which were either placed upon the table or offered in sacrifice. When intended for a fly-flapper it was less stiff, and was called muscarium (Mart. xiv. 67), and jj.vio<to§ji (Menander, p. 175 ; Aelian, PI. A. xv. 14 ; Brunck, Anal. ii. 388, iii. 92). In short, the manner of using fans was precisely that which is still practised in China, India, and other parts of the East; and Euripides (I. c.} says that the Greeks derived their knowledge of them from "barbarous" countries. The emperor Augustus had a slave to fan him during his sleep (Sueton. Aug. 82) ; for the use of fans was not confined to females.

Besides separate feathers the ancient fan was sometimes made of linen, extended upon a light frame. (Strato, I. c.) From the above-cited pas­sage of Euripides and the ancient Scholia upon it, compared with representations of the flabellum in ancient paintings, it also appears to have been made by placing the two wings of a bird back to back, fastening them together in this position, and attaching a handle at the base. (See also Brunck, Anal. ii. 258, Tlrepivav pnr?5a.)

A more homely application of the fan was its use in cookery [Focus], In a painting which repre­ sents a sacrifice to Isis (Ant. d"1 Ercolano., ii. 60), a priest is seen fanning the fire upon the altar with a triangular flabellum, such as is still used in Italy. This practice gave origin among classical writers to expressions corresponding to ours, meaning to fan the flame of hope (Alciph. iii. 47), of love (pnrifeiv, Brunck, ii. 306), or of sedition (Aristoph. Ran. 360 ; Cic. pro Place. 23). [J. Y.J

FLAGRUM, dim. FLAGELLUM (^<tt/|), a whip, a scourge, to the handle of which was fixed a lash made of cords (fimibus, Hor. Epod. iv. 3 ; John, ii. 15), or thongs of leather (loris, Hor. Epist. i. 16. 47 ; (TKvriva, Anac. p. 357, ed. Fischer), especially thongs made from the ox's hide (bubulis escwoiis, Plaut. Most, iv, 1. 26). The flagellum properly so called was a dreadful instru­ment, and is thus put in opposition to the scutica^ which was a simple whip. (Hor. Sat. i. 3. 119.) Cicero in like manner contrasts the severe fiagella with the virgae (pro Rabir. 4). The flagellum was chiefly used in the punishment of slaves. It

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