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53

FIBULA.

Ovid, Met. viii. 318 ; Tacit Germ. 17). [Wood­cuts, pp. 2, 117, 213.] More rarely we see it over the breast. [Woodcut, p. 218.] The epi­thet Irep^TropTTos was applied to a person wear­ing the fibula on one shoulder only (Schol. in Eurip. Ilec. 933, 934) ; for women often wore it on both shoulders. [Woodcuts, pp. 136, 243, 257..] In consequence of the habit of putting on the amictus with the aid of a fibula, it was called Trepoi/^yUa or ejuirepoj/^/xa (Theocrit. Adon.. 34. 79), TTOpir^/jia (Eurip. Elect. 820), or afjnrextwi irepo-vi]Tis (Brunck, Anal. ii. 28). The splendid shawl of Ulysses, described in the Odyssey (xix. 225— 231), was provided with two small pipes for ad­mitting the pin of the golden brooch ; this contri­vance would secure the cloth from being torn. The highest degree of ornament was bestowed upon brooches after the fall of the western empire. Justin II. (Corippus, ii 122), and many of the emperors who preceded him, as we perceive from the portraits on their medals, wore upon their right shoulders fibulae, from which jewels, at­tached by three small chains, depended. (Beger, Thes. Pal p. 407, 408, &c.)

It has been already stated that women often wore the fibula on both shoulders. In addition to this, a lady sometimes displayed an elegant row of brooches down each arm upon the sleeves of her tunic (Aelian, V. H. i. 18), examples of which are seen in many ancient statues. It was also fashion­able to wear them on the breast (Isid. Orig. xix. 30) ; and another occasional distinction of female attire, in later times, was the use of the fibula in tucking up the tunic above the knee.

Not only might slight accidents to the person arise from wearing brooches (Horn. IL v. 426), but they ivere sometimes used, especially by females, to inflict serious injuries. The pin of the fibula is the instrument, which the Phrygian women employ to deprive Polymnestor of his sight by piercing his pupils (Eurip. Hec. 1170), and with which the Athenian women, having first blinded a man, then dispatch him. (Herod, v. 87 ; Schol. in Eurip. Hec. 934). Oedipus strikes the pupils of his own eye­balls with a brooch taken from, the dress of Jocasta (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1269 ; Eurip. Phoen. 62). For the same reason we find that Trepoj/aco meant to pierce, since ireptivt} was properly the pin of the brooch (TT€p6j/7](T€9 " pinned him," Horn. //. vii. 145 ; xiii. 397).

Brooches were succeeded by buckles, especially among the Romans, who called them by the same name. The preceding woodcut snows on the right hand the forms of four bronze buckles (4,5,6,7) from the collection in the British Museum. This article of dress was chiefly used to fasten the belt [BAL-teus], and the girdle [ZoNA]. (Virg. Aen. xii. 274 ; Lydus, De Mag. Rom. ii. 13). It appears to have been in general much more richly orna­mented than the brooch ; for, although Hadrian was simple and inexpensive in this as well as in other matters of costume .(Spartian. Hadr. 10), yet many of his successors were exceedingly prone to display buckles set with jewels (fibulae gemmatae).

The terms which have now been illustrated as applied to articles of dress, were also used to denote pins variously introduced in carpentry ; e. g, the linen-pins of a chariot (Parthen. 6); the wooden pins inserted through the sides of a boat, to which the fsailors fasten their lines or ropes (Apoll, Rhod. i.

FICTILE.

567) ; the trenails which unite the posts and planks of a wooden bridge (Caesar, B. G. iv. 1 7) ; and the pins fixed into the top of a wooden tri­angle used as a mechanical engine (Vitruv. x. 2).

The practice of infibulating singers, alluded to by Juvenal and Martial, is described in Rhoclius De Ada, and Pitiscus. [J. Y.J

FFCTILE (KepdjjLOS, Kepd/u.iov9 &crrpa,K.ov, offTp&Kivov), earthenware, a vessel or other article made of baked clay.

The instruments used in pottery (cirs figulmci) were the following:—1. The wheel (rpoxos, orlris, rota, " rota figularis," Plant. Epid. iii. 2. 35), which is mentioned by Homer (//. xviii. 600), and is among the most ancient of all human inventions. According to the representations of it on the walls of Egyptian tombs (Wilkinson, Manners and Cus­toms, iii. p. 163), it was a circular table, placed on a cylindrical pedestal, and turning freely on a point. The workman, having placed a lump of clay upon it, whirled it swiftly with his left hand, and employed his right in moulding the clay to the requisite shape. Hence a dish is called " the daughter of the wheel " (Tpox^Aaros it6py, Xenar-chus, ap. Atken. ii. p. 64). 2. Pieces of wood or bone, which the potter (KepafjLevs^fyulus) held in his right hand, and applied occasionally to the surface of the clay during its revolution. A pointed stick, touching the clay, would inscribe a circle upon it ; and circles were in this manner disposed parallel to one another, and in any number, ac­cording to the fancy of the artist. By having the end of the stick curved or indented, and by turning it in different directions, he would impress many beautiful varieties of form and outline upon his vases. 3. Moulds (formae, tuttoi, Schol. in Arist. Eccles. 1), used either to decorate with figures in relief (Trp6(TTvira) vessels which had been thrown on the wheel, or to produce foliage, animals, or any other appearances, oh antefixa, on cornices of terra cotta, and imitative or ornamental pottery of all other kinds, in which the wheel was not adapted to give the first shape. The annexed woodcut shows three moulds, which were found near Rome by M. Seroux d'Agincourt. (Recueil de Fragmens, p. 88—92.) They are cut in stone. One of them was probably used for making ante-fixa, and the other two for making hearts and legs, designed to be suspended by poor persons " ex voto," in the temples and sanctuaries. [Do-naria.] Copies of the same subject, which might

in this manner be multiplied to any extent, were called " ectypa." 4. Gravers or scalpels, used by skilful modellers in giving to figures of all kinds a more perfect finish and a higher relief than could be produced by the use of moulds. These instru­ments, exceedingly simple in themselves, and de-

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