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people. It appears that when an injury had been sustained, four fetiales (Varro, ap. Non.} were deputed to seek redress, who again elected one of their number to act as their representative. This individual was styled the pater patmtus populi Romani. A fillet of white wool was bound round his head, together with a wreath of sacred herbs gathered within the inclosure of the Capitoline hill (verbenae, sagmina) [sagmina], whence he was sometimes named Verlenarius. (Plin. PI. N. xxii. 2.) Thus equipped he proceeded to the confines of the offending tribe, where he halted and ad­dressed a prayer to Jupiter, calling the god to wit­ness, with heavy imprecations, that his complaints were well founded and his demands reasonable. He then crossed the border, and the same form was repeated in nearly the same words to the first native of the soil whom he might chance to meet ; again a third time to the sentinel or any citizen whom he encountered at the gate of the chief town; and a fourth time to the magistrates in the forum in presence of the people. If a satisfactory answer was not returned within thirty days, after publicly delivering a solemn denunciation,—in which the gods celestial, terrestrial, and infernal were invoked,—of what might be expected to follow, he returned to Rome, and, accompanied by the rest of the fetiales, made a report of his mission to the senate. If the people ( Liv. x. 45), as well as the senate, decided for war, the pater patratus again set forth to the border of the hostile territory, and launched a spear tipped with iron, or charred at the extremity and smeared with blood (emblematic doubtless of fire and slaughter) across the boun­dary, pronouncing at the same time a solemn declaration of war. The demand for redress and the proclamation of hostilities were alike termed darigatio, which word the Romans in later times explained by dare repetere (Plin. H. N. xxii. 3 ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. ix. 53) ; but Gottling (Ge-schichte der Rom. Staatsverf. p. 196) and other mo­dern writers, connect it with the Doric form of Kypvi- and KypvKeiov.

Several of the formulae employed on these occa­sions have been preserved by Livy (i. 24, 32), and Aulus Gellius (xvi. 4), forming a portion of the Jus Fetiale by which the college was regulated. The services of the fetiales were considered abso­lutely essential in concluding a treaty (Liv. ix. 5) ; and we read that at the termination of the second Punic war fetiales were sent over to Africa, who carried with them their own verbenae and their own flint stones for smiting the victim. Here also the chief was termed pater patratus. (Liv. xxx. 43.)

The institution of these priests was ascribed by tradition, in common with other matters con­nected with religion, to Numa (Dionys. ii. 71) ; and although Livy (i. 32) speaks as if he attri­buted their introduction to Ancus Martins, yet in an earlier chapter (i. 24) lie supposes them to have existed in the reign of Hostilius. The whole system is said to have been borrowed from the Aequicolae or theArdeates (Liv. and Dionys. ^.c.), and similar usages undoubtedly prevailed among the Latin states ; for it is clear that the formula preserved by Livy (i. 32), must have been em­ployed when the pater patratus of the Romans was put in communication with the pater patratus of the Prisci Latini.

The number of the fetiales cannot be ascertained



with certainty, but some have inferred from a pas­sage quoted from Varro by Nonius (xii. 43) that it amounted to twenty ; of whom Niebuhr sup­poses ten were elected from the Ramnes and ten from the Titienses ; but Gottling (Geschiclite der Rom. Staatsverf. p. 195) thinks it more probable that they were at first all chosen from the Ramnes, as the Sabines were originally unacquainted with the use of fetiales. They were originally selected from the most noble families ; their office lasted for life (Dionys. ii. 72) ; and it seems probable that vacancies were filled up by the college (cooptatione) until the passing of the Lex Domitia, when in com­mon with most other priests they would be nomi­nated in the comitia tributa. This, however, is nowhere expressly stated.

The etymology of fetialis is uncertain. Varro would connect it with fidus and foedus; Festus with ferio or facio: while some modern scholars suppose it to be allied to <^u.t, and thus tyyridXeis woidd be oratores, speakers. In inscriptions we find \>Q\h fetialis &n&fecialis ; but since in Greek MSS. the word always appears under some one of the forms <j)titic&<eis <£eT*aA6is, ^maAejs, the orthography we have adopted in this article is probably correct.

The explanation given by Livy (i. 24) of the origin of the term Pater Patratus is satisfactory :—• " Pater Patratus ad jusjurandum patrandum, id est, sanciendum fit foedus ; " and we may at once reject the speculations of Servius (ad Aen. ix. 53, x. 14, xii. 206) and Plutarch (Q. /?. p. 127, ed. Reiske) ; the former of whom supposes that he was so called because it was necessary that his father should be alive, the latter that the name indicated that his father was living, and that he himself was the father of children. [W. R.]

I. 2.

FIBULA (TrepofTi^Trepovis^Trepo^Tjrpis: trap-try, eViTTOpTris: eVer^), a brooch consisting of a pin (acus]^ and of a curved portion furnished with a hook (tfAeis, Horn. Od. xviii, 293). The curved portion was sometimes a circular ring or disc, the pin passing across its centre (woodcut, figs. 1, 2), and sometimes an arc, the pin being as the chord of the arc (fig. 3). The forms of brooches, which were commonly of gold or bronze, and more rarely of silver (Aelian, V. H. i. 18), were, however, as various in ancient as in modern times ; for the fibula served in dress not merely as a fastening, but also as an ornament. (Horn. Od. xix. 256, 257 ; Eurip. Phoen. 821.)



6. 7.

• Women wore the fibula both with the amictus and the indutus; men wore it with the amictus only. Its most frequent use was, to pin together two parts of the scarf, shawl or cloak [€hla-mys ; peplum ; pallium],-which constituted the amictus, so as to fasten it over the right shoulder. (Soph. Track. 923 ; Theocrit. xiv. 66 ;

M M 2

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