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anniRomam a Verrio Flacco ordlnatorum Reliquiae? Sec. Romae, 1779 ; and in Jac. Van Vaassen Ani-madverss. ad Fastos Rom. Sacros fragmenta, Traj. ad Rhen. 1795: to which add Ideler's Handbucli der Matliematisclien und Teclinisclien Chronoloyie. Berlin, 1826.
Before quitting this part of our subject, we may make mention of a curious relic, the antiquity of which has been called in question without good cause, the Calendarium Rusticum F'arnesianum. This Rural Almanac is cut upon four sides of a cube, each face being divided into three columns, and each column including a month. At the top of the column is carved the appropriate sign of the zodiac ; then follows the name of the month, the number of the days, the position of the nones, the length of the day and night, the name of the sign through which the sun passes, the god under whose protection the month was placed, the various agricultural operations to be performed, and a list of the principal festivals. Take May as an example : —•
DIES. HOR. XIIIJS.
NOX. HOR. VIIIIS.
(See the commentary of Morcelli in his Opera Epigrapltica., vol. i. 77.)
II. fasti annales or historici. Chronicles Bucli as the Annales Maximi, containing the names of the chief magistrates for each year, and a short account of the most remarkable events noted down opposite to the days on which they occurred, were, from the resemblance which they bore in arrangement to the sacred calendars, denominated fasti; and hence this word is used, especially by the poets, in the general sense of historical records. (Horat. Sat. i. 3. 112, Garm. iv. 13. 13, iii. 17. 7.)
In prose writers fasti is commonly employed as the technical term for the registers of consuls, dictators, censors, and other magistrates, which formed part of the public archives. (Liv. ix. 18 ; Cic. Pro Sext. 14; compare Cic. Philipp. xiii. 12 ; Tacit. Ann. iii. 17, 18.) Again, when Cicero remarks in the famous epistle to Lucceius (Ad Fain. v. 12), " Etenim ordo ille annalium medio-criter nos retinet quasi enumeratione fastorum," he means that the regular succession of events meagrely detailed in chronicles fixed the attention but feebly, and was little more interesting than a mere catalogue of names. (Compare Ad Att. iv. 8.)
A most important specimen of fasti belonging to this class, executed probably at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, has been partially preserved. In the year 1547, several fragments of marble tablets were discovered in excavating the Roman
forum, and were found to contain a list of consuls dictators with their masters of horse, censors with the lustra which they closed, triumphs and ova tions, all arranged in regular succession according to the years of the Catonian era. These had evi dently extended from the expulsion of the kings to the death of Augustus, and although defective in many places, have proved of the greatest value in chronology. The different pieces were collected and arranged under the inspection of Cardinal Alexander Farnese, and deposited in the Capitol, where they still remain. From this circumstance they are generally distinguished as the Fasti Capitolini. In the years 1817 and 1818, two other fragments of the same marble tablets were discovered in the course of a new excavation in the Forum. A fac-simile of them was published at Milan, by Borghesi, in 1818. [W. R.]
FASTIGIUM (aero's, aeVa^a), literally, « slope^ in architecture a pediment, is the triangle which surmounts each end of a rectangular building, and which, in fact, represents the gable end of the roof. (See woodcut, p. 97.) It is composed of three sets of mouldings (forming respectively the horizontal base and the sloping sides of the triangle, and representing the timber framing of the roof), and of a fiat surface enclosed by them, which covers the vacant space of the roof, and which, from its resemblance to a membrane stretched upon the triangular frame, is called tympanum. (Vitruv. iii. 3.) This flat surface was generally ornamented with sculpture ; originally, in the early temples of Zeus, with a simple eagle as a symbol of the god (Find. Otymp. xiii. 29, and Schol. ad loc.\ an instance of which is afforded by the coin represented in the following woodcut (Beger. Spirit, Anl-iq*
p. 6), whence the Greek name asrSs which was at first applied to the tympanum and afterwards to the whole pediment; and in after times with elaborate sculptures in high relief, such as those in the pediments of the Parthenon, the fragments of which are among the Elgin marbles in the British Museum; where also may be seen a full-sized model of the pediments of the temple of Zeus Panhellenius, at Aegina, with casts of the statues in them, restored. Most of the celebrated Greek temples were similarly adorned. (See Pans. i. 24. § 5, ii. 7. § 3, v. 10. § 2, ix. 11. § 4 ; Aristoph. Aves, 1110.) Terra-cotta figures were applied in a similar manner by the Romans in the early ages. (Cic. Divin. i. 10 ; Vitruv. iii. 2 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 12. s. 43, 46, xxxvi. 2.)
The dwelling-houses of the Romans had no gable ends ; consequently, when the word is applied to them (Cic. Epist. ad Q. Fr. iii. 1. 4 ; Virg. Aen. viii. 491), it is not in its strictly technical sense, but designates the roof simply, and is to be understood of one which rises to an apex as distinguished