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declare whether there was sufficient reason (justa et probabilis causa} for production. The word " interest" was obviously a word of doubtful import. Accordingly, it was a question if a man could bring this action for the production of his adversary's accounts, though it was a general rule of law that all persons might have this action who had an interest in the thing to be produced (quorum interest) ; but the opinion as given in the Digest (Dig. 10. tit. 4. s. 19) is not favourable to the production on the mere ground of its being for the plaintiff's advantage. A man might have this actio though he had no vindicatio ; as, for instance, if he had a legacy given to him of such a slave as Titius might choose, he had a right to the production of the testator's slaves in order that Titius might make the choice ; when the choice was made, then the plaintiff might claim the slave as his property, though he had no power to make the choice. If a man wished to assert the freedom of a slave (in libertatem vindicare), he might have this action.
This action was, as it appears, generally in aid of another action, and for the purpose of obtaining evidence ; in which respect it bears some resemblance to a Bill of Discovery in Equity.
(Miihlenbruch, Doctrina Pandectarum ; Dig. 1.0. tit. 4:) [G. K]
EXITERIA or EPEXO'DIA (tln^pmoreVef <J5m), the names of the sacrifices which were offered by generals before they set out on their expeditions. (Xenoph. Anab, vi. 5. § 2.) The principal object of these sacrifices always was to discover from the accompanying signs the favourable or unfavourable issue of the undertaking on which they were about to enter. According to Hesychius, ^ir^pia was also the name of the day on which the annual magistrates laid down their offices. [L. S.] '
EXODIA (e|o'5ia, from e'| and 65ds) were old-fashioned and laughable interludes in verses, inserted in other plays, hut chiefly in the Atellanae. (Liv. vii. 2.) It is difficult to ascertain the real character of the exodia ; but from the words of Livy we must infer that, although distinct from the Atellanae, they were closely connected with them, and never performed alone. Hence Juvenal calls them escodium Atellanae (Sat. vi. 71), and Suetonius (Tib. 45) escodium Atellanicum. They were, like the Atellanae themselves, played by young and well-born Romans, and not by the histriones. Since the time of Jos. Scaliger and Casaubon, the exodia have almost generally been considered as short comedies or farces which were performed after the Atellanae ; and this opinion is founded upon the vague and incorrect statement of the Scholiast on Juvenal (Sat. iii. 174). But the words of Livy, exodia cons&rta fabellis^ seem rather to indicate interludes, which, however, must not be understood as if they had been played between the acts of the Atellanae, which would suggest a false ideii of the Atellanae themselves. But as several Atellanae were performed on the same day, it is probable that the exodia were played between them. This supposition is also supported by the etymology of the word itself which signifies something c-£ 6§ou, extra viam, or something not belonging to the main subject, and thus is synonymous with eTretcr-68iov. The play, as well as the name of exodium, seems to have been introduced among the Romans from Italian Greece ; but after its introduction it appears to have become very popular among the
Romans, and continued to be played down to.a very late period. (Sueton. Domit. 10.) [L. S. ]
EXOMIS (e£«/u's), a dress which had only a sleeve for the left arm, leaving the right with the shoulder and a part of the breast free,.and was for this reason called eocomis. It is also frequently called %iTcb*> erepo/AatrxaAos. (Phot, and Hesych. s. v. 'Erepo/j..: Heliod. Aethiop. iii. 1 ; Pans. v. 16*. § 2.) The exomis, however, was not only a chiton [tunica], but also an 1/j.driov or TrepigA-^a. [pallium.] According to Hesyehius (s. v. 5E£co-^uts), and Aelius Dionysius (ap. Eustatli. ad II. xviii. 595), it served at the same time both the purposes of a chiton and an himation ; but Pollux (vii. 48) speaks of two different kinds of exomis, one of which was a 7rept§A77,«.a and the other a xvt&v Irepo/uacrxaAos. His account is confirmed by existing works of art. Thus we find in the Mus. Pio-Clement. (vol. iv. pi. 11), Hephaestos wearing an exomis, which is an himation thrown round the body in the way in which this garment was always worn, and which clothes the body like an exomis when it is girded round the waist. The following figure of Charon, on the contrary (taken from Stackelberg, Die Gr'dber der Heltenen, pi. 47), represents the proper %tr<i)V erepojuaorxaAos,. sinel we see a similar dress in the figure of Ulysses represented in the article pileus.
The exomis was usually worn by slaves and working people (Phot. s. v. ; Schol. ad Aristopk. Equit. 879), whence we find Hephaestos, the working deity, frequently represented with this garment in works of art. (Miiller, Arch'dol. der Kunst, § 366. 6.) The chorus of old men in the Lysistrata of Aristophanes (1. 662) wear the exomis ; which is in accordance with the state-, ment of Pollux (iv. 118), who says that it was the dress of old men in comic plays. According to Gellius (vii. 12), the exomis was the same as the common tunic without sleeves* (citra Jmmerum de-sinentes) ; but his statement is opposed to the accounts of all the Greek grammarians, and is without doubt erroneous. (Becker, Char*Mes9 vol. ii. p. 112, &c.)
EXOMOSIA (3-oyioo-fa). Any Athenian citizen when called upon to appear as a witness in