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weapons of the spear kind,—£ucrT6V probably intended to represent the pilum, for which vff<r6s is generally employed ; &kgov the light javelin ; hoyxn and SJpu, pikes of different kinds. It would appear from Arrian that the \6yxn was sometimes used as a missile.
Finally, some additional light will be thrown upon the constitution of a Roman army about half a century later by the instructions issued for the line of march to be observed by the force despatched against the Scythian Alani, preserved in the fragment of Arrian, of which we have spoken above.
The force in question consisted of the fifteenth legion, which was complete, and of the twelfth, which appears to have been a fragment only, these legions having both cavalry and. skirmishers attached to them exactly as under the republic — of several cohortes equitatae^ composed of Italians, Cyrenians, Armenians, and others, each of these battalions containing heavy and light infantry together with squadrons of cavalry — of cohortes pe~ ditatae^ including infantry only, both light and heavy, and of light cavalry of the allies and of barbarians. The order in which they were to advance was as follows: —
1. Horse scouts (/caTaoTcoVous fTnreas), horse archers and slingers (liriroTo^oTas leal Trerpcuous), commanded by their own decurions (SeKaSapxcu). 2. Various corps of foreign cavalry, Cyrenians, Ituraeans, Celts, and others, of whom the names are doubtful. 3. The whole of the infantry archers, followed by different bodies of heavy-armed infantry, not legionaries, Italians, Cyrenians, Bos-poranians and Numidians, the flanks of this division being covered by cavalry. 4. The equites selecti and the equites of the legion (ol cwrb t??s tydXayyos /7T7re?s). 5. The artillery (/caraTreA/rcu). 6. The standard (0Ttyie?o?) of the fifteenth legion, and around it the principal officers, namely the commander of the legion (riye^v ttjs <p&Xa,yyos\ the legatus (?) (zWpx05)? tae tribunes (of xiAtap%oz), and the centurions of the first cohort (eKaToVrapxa1 ol tt}s TrpcuTTjs cnreipTjs e7aa'T<£Tcu). Here, it will be remarked, we meet with an officer called the yye/j.<av t^js (f)d\ayyos and his deputy or v-rrdpxos. 7. The infantry of the legion, four and four, preceded by their own skirmishers (ire&v ol a«wrzor-tcu). 8. Foreign (t& <rujufuxxiKoj>) infantry, both light and heavy. 9. The baggage (ra o-Kevo(f>6pa). 10. The rear brought up by an ala of Getae under their praefectus (etXapx1?5)- The centurions were to march on the flanks of the infantry, keeping the men to their ranks 1 for the sake of greater security a body of horsemen was to ride in single file along the whole length of the line ; the commander-in-chief, Xenophon, was to march in front of the infantry standards, but to move about occasionally from place to place, watching everything, and preserving order everywhere. It appears that of the cavalry some were archers (iTnroro^6rai\ some lancers (Xoyxo^poi)^ some pole-men (Koj/ro<£opoi), some sword-men (fjLaxaipo<f>6poi), some axe-men (Tr€\<=Ko<j)6poL) ; these and many other curious particulars may be extracted from the detailed account of the Agmm^ and from the Acies or scheme of battle by which it is followed ; but unfortunately we are so much embarrassed at every step by the uncertainty of the text that it is scarcely safe to form positive.conclusions.
A great many topics connected with a Roman army are discussed under separate articles: thus,
EXHIBENDUM, ACTIO AD. 511
much that belongs to the cavalry is necessarily included under equites ; the position of the allies in the service under Socu ; the life-guards under praetoriani ; the pay of the soldier under stipendium ; a detailed account of his armour and weapons under galea, lorica, ocrea, caliga, hasta, pilum, gladius, scutum, &c. ; of his dress under chlamys, paluda-mentum, sagum ; of the standards under signa militaria ; of military processions under ova-tio, triumphus ; of punishments under fustu-arium, decimatio ; of military rewards under torques, phalerae, corona ; of military engines under tormentum, aries, vineae, plutei, heiepolis, turris, &c. [W. R.]
EXBTASTAE (QeraffTaf), special commissioners sent out by the Athenian people to investigate any matters that might claim attention. Thus we find mention of Exetastae being appointed to ascertain whether there were as many mercenaries as the generals reported. It appears to have been no uncommon plan for the commanders, who received pay for troops, to report a greater number than they possessed, in order to receive the pay themselves ; in which case they were said "to draw pay for empty places in the mercenary force" (fj.iff9o<popeiv ey t$ %sviK(p ksvois x^pais, Aeschin. c. Ctes. p. 536). The commissioners, foowever, who were sent to make inquiries into the matter, often allowed themselves to be bribed. (Aeschin. c. Timarcli. p. 131, De Fals. Leg. p. 339 ; Bockh. Pull. Econ. of Athens, p. 292a 2nd ed.)
EXHIBENDUM, ACTIO AD. This action was introduced mainly with respect to vindiea-tiones or actions about property. " Exhibere " is defined to be " facere in publico potestatem, ut ei qui agat experiundi sit copia." This was a personal action, and he had tfee right of action who intended to bring an actio in rem. The actio ad exhibendum was against a person who was in possession of the thing in question, or had fraudulently parted with the possession of it j and the object was the production of the thing for the purpose of its being examined by tfee plaintiff. The thing, which was of course a movable thing, was to be produced at the place where it was at the commencement of the legal proceedings respecting it; but it was to be taken to the place where the action was tried, at the cost and expanse of the plaintiff.
The action was extended to other eases: for instance, to cases when a man claimed the privilege of taking his property off another person's land,, that other person not being legally bound to restore the tiling, though bound by this action to allow the owner to take it; and to some cases where a man had in his possession something in which his own and the plaintiff's property were united, as a jewel set in the defendant's gbHy in which ease there might be an actio ad ersMbendum for the purpose of separating the things- (nt excludatur ad exhibendum agi potest, Dig. 10, tit. 4. s. 6).
If the thing was not prodnsed when it ought to have been, the plaintiff might have damages for loss caused by such non-prodnie1iioa. This action would lie to produce a slave, in ©ider that he might be put to the torture to discover his confederates.
The ground of the right to the production of a thing, was either property in the thing or some interest j and it was the business of the1 jiidex to