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EXERCITUS.

510

EXERCITUS.

ordinary soldiers, Tacitus mentions at the com­mencement of his history (i. 6), that Galba found in the city a legion " quam e classe Nero conscrip-serat " (comp. Dion Cass. Ixiv. 3 ; Suet. Galb. 12 ; Plut. Galb. 15), which he subsequently (i. 3), 36) terms " legio classica " and " classicorum legio " {comp. ii, 11, 14, 17, 22, iii. 55), and elsewhere {ii, 67) we hear t$f the "prima classicorum legio." In the Annals classiarius is the form which he generally employs, as classiariorum copia (Ann. iv. 27)i and centurione classiario (Ann. xiv. 8).

17. Nationes. — These occupied the same posi­tion with regard to the sociae cokortes^ that the Mamri and Pann&nii Veredarii did with regard to the regular Alae of cavalry. They were battalions composed entirely of barbarians, or of the most (uncivilised among the subjects of Rome, and were probably chiefly employed upon outpost duties. Hygimas allows space for 3300, consisting of Pal-myrcni ,* Gaetae i Dad ; Britones ; Cantabri.

Urb(mae Cokortes. — We may take occasion to notice in this place two bodies of men established during the first years of the empire, who held a station intermediate between regular troops and an armed police, their services being, properly speaking, confined to the city. These were th« Urban&e Cokortes and the Cokortes Vigilum.

iDion Cassius (Iv, 24) informs us that Augustus, 3n addition to the praetorian cohorts, instituted a force of city guards, amounting to six thousand men divided into four battalions: to these he else­where gives the name of affriKol (lix. 2), while, by the Latin writers, they are usually distin­guished as Cokorfes Urbanae or Urbana militia, ftheir quarters, which were within the city, being the Urbana Castwx,. According to Tacitus, who states the number of cohorts at three only, they, like the praetorians, were levied in Latium, Umbria, Etruria, and the ancient Roman colonies (Tacit. Ann. iv. 5), and were under the immediate com­mand of the praefect of the city, whence it was surged upon Flavius Sabinus (Tacit. Hist. iii. 64), "" esse illi proprium militem cohortium urbanarum."

Cohortes Vigilwm. — Augustus organised a large ibody of night-watchers also, whose chief duty was to act as firemen (Adversus incendia excubias noc-fairncis vigilesque commentus est, Sueton. Octav. 30). They were divided into seven cohorts, in the pro­portion of one cohort to each two Regiones, were stationed in fourteen guardhouses (excubitoria}* .•and are called WKTO(f>v\aK€s by the Greek, Co­liortes Vigilum by the Latin writers. They were ^commanded by a Praefectus (Tacit. Ann. xi. 35), who was of equestrian rank ; but the corps, in con­sequence of being raised among the class of li-bertini, was regarded as occupying a position in­ferior to, that of regular soldiers (Dion Cass. Iv. 26, mx. 2). In Tacitus (Hist. iii. 64), they are termed ithe servitia, of the aristocracy, and Suetonius (Octav. 25) alludes to them as " libertino milite." (Comp. Dig. 1. tit 15. s. 3.)

Equipment 6/tiie Troops under the Empire.

Josephus has transmitted to us a description of the equipment of the Roman troops, and his testi­mony is peculiarly valuable, proceeding, as it does, from a competent eye-witness (B. J. iii. 5. § 5).

The infantry wore cuirasses, helmets, and two swords (frcapa^i T<e ire<ppay/uevoi ical Kpdvecri ical uaxaipofpopovvres a^orepojfle*/), that is, a long sword on the left, and a short dagger

ov irXsov €X€l wkos) on the right side. T he select infantry in attendance upon the general carried a long spear (^oyxw-> hastain)9 and a round shield (ao"7ri8a, clipeum) ; the rest of the legionaries (% 5e Aonr)f (f)d\ay£) a pilum (?) (£iKTT(Jj'), and a scutum (Svpzbv eVi^/of). In addition, each man had a saw and a basket (irpiova Kal K6<f)ivov')9 a mattock and a hatchet (auyv Kal TreAe/cw), a leather strap, a hook and a chain (i/mi/rcc Kal SpeTravoi' Kal ttAucnj/), together with provisions for three days, — so that, says Josephus, the Roman in­fantry differ little from mules of burden.

The Equites wore helmets and cuirasses like the infantry, with a broadsword at their right side (ludxaipa /x,a/cpa), and carried in their hand a long pole (Kovrbs eV^/nys) ; a buckler swung at their horses1 flank (Svpebs 5e trapa irXevpav' 'iiriroi, TrAcfyios), and they were furnished with a quiver containing three or more javelins (ct,Kovres\ with broad points, and as large as spears ( ovk airoSeov-t€s Se Sopdrcav ^-yedos). Those selected to attend the general differed, in no respect, in. their ap­pointments from the regular cavalry (t&v ev rous

The Jewish historian has moreover given an ac­count of the Agmen or line of march in which the army of Vespasian entered Galilee (B. J. iii. 6. § 2), this being, he adds, the regular arrangement fol­lowed by the Romans. 1. The light-armed aux­iliaries and bowmen (roits ^v ye tyihovs ru>v sin-Kovpcav Kal To£6ras) advanced first to reconnoitre. to examine woods and suspicious localities, and to give timely notice of the approach of an enemy. 2. A detachment of Roman heavy-armed troops. horse and foot ('Pafiaicav 6ir\iriK7j juot/xx, ire^oi re Kal tinreis). 3. Ten men out of each century car­rying their own equipments and the measures of the camp (ytterpa ttjs 7ra/>e/x§o/V)}s). 4. The pioneers (oSoiroioi). The baggage of Vespasian and his legati (t$>v vir* avrtp ^ye/xoVcoz/) guarded by a strong body of horse. 6. Vespasian himself at­tended by Selecti Pedites^ Selecti Eguites, and a body of spearmen (\oyxofy6povs},, 7. The peculiar cavalry of the legion (rb ffiiov tov rdy/^aros tTr-Tn/cb*/), for, he subjoins, each legion has 120 horse attached to it. This we perceive was a return, to a certain extent, to the ancient system. 8. The artillery dragged by mules (ot ras e\€ir6\eis <f)£-povrss bpt-ts Kal to. \onra ^xaz/yjftara.) 9. The legati, praefects of cohorts and tribunes (riyt^ves re Kal cnreipwv eirapxot ffvv xiTuapxois) guarded by a body of picked soldiers. 10. The standards surrounding the eagle (at <T7ifAaiai TcepLi(rxov(Tai rl)v aerJ*/). 11. The trumpeters (ot cra\iriyKTai). 12. The main body of the infantry (f) (j)d\ay%) six abreast, accompanied by a centurion (l/caroy-rapXTjs), whose duty it was to see that the men kept their ranks. 13. The whole body of slaves attached to each legion (rb olKeriKov e«:a<rroy rdy-fj.aros)9 driving the mules and beasts of burden loaded with the baggage. 14. Behind all the le­gions followed the mercenaries (6 tiiffQios o%Aos). 15. The rear was brought up by a strong body of infantry and cavalry. Josephus seems to desig­nate the legati by the word yye^ves, the Tribuni militum by Aoxayot or %jAicipxot9 the centuriones by raj-idpxot or 4/caroyTci/)%at ; whether he means by ovpayoi (in iii. 6. § 2) the optiones who are so designated by Polybius, or intends to comprehend the whole rear- guard under the appellation^ may . admit of doubt. Four words are used to Denote

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