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St. Mark, vi. 27, and comment, of Cluysost.; comp. Suet. Calig. 32), and seem to have acted as couriers likewise. (Tacit. Hist. ii. 73.) They formed a regular corps with officers of their own (Tacitus speaks of an optio speculatorum, H. i. 25), and must have been numerous, as appears from such expressions as " praetoriarum cohortium et specula-torum equitumque valida manus " (Tacit. H. ii. 33) ; and from inscriptions where mention is made of a sixth cohort of speculatores (Orell. 3518) ; while from another inscription, in which a certain L. Veturius is styled praef. turmae. specu-lat., it is manifest that there must have been mounted speculatores. The word is used also by Tacitus to denote an ordinary scout. {Ann. ii. 12.)

11. The scouts, however, formed a distinct body under the name of Eosploratores^ and Hyginus quarters them appropriately at the extremity of the camp nearest to the Praetorian gate, and close to the Pioneers.

12. Alae. — From the time when the cavalry were separated from the legion they were formed into bodies called alae, which varied in number according to circumstances. Hyginus provides ac­commodation in,his camp for four Alae Milliariae, and for five Alae Quingenariae.

The Ala Milliaria was divided into 24 turmae, each of which, according to the conjecture of Schelius, consisted of 40 men except the first which had 80. The commander of the whole was the Praefectus Alae^ the inferior officers were 24 decurioneS) 24 duplicctrii^ and 24 sesquiplarii, that is, a decurio, a duplicarius, and a sesquiplarius for each turina.

The Ala Quingenaria was divided into 16 turmae with a decurio, a duplicarius and sesquiplarius for each, and we may suppose that each turma con­sisted of 30 men except the first, which thus would have 50.

Each decurio had three horses allowed to him, each duplicarius and each sesquiplarius two horses, so that the total number of horses in the Ala Mil­liaria was 1090, and in the Ala Quingenaria 504, exclusive of those belonging to the Praefecti.

It is evident that the duplicarii and sesquiplarii here named were subalterns ; according to the ancient signification of duplicarius, as interpreted by Varro (L. L. v. § 90), it denoted a soldier who on account of his valour was allowed double ra­tions (romp. Liv. xxiv. 47, ii. 59), which must of course have been convertible into increased pay. (Orelli, C. I. 3535.) Such persons are frequently presented to us in inscriptions under the cognate forms duplarius, duplicarius., and dupliciarius. Thus we have dupl. N. explor. {Duplarii numeri eosploratorum^ Orell. 206) ; duplario leg. I. (Ib. 3531) ; duplarius alarius (Ib. 2003); duplicarius (Ib. 3533);DupLiciAR. (Ib. 3534). Sesquiplarius, which evidently denotes a soldier who received a ration and a half^ appears in no authors except Hyginus and Vegetius, of whom the latter gives them gold collars and styles them Torquati duplares,-torquati sesquiplares (ii. 7), but the title is met with in inscriptions. (Orell. 3470.)

13. Mauri Equites. Pannonii Veredarii. — The Alae were raised in the Roman provinces and consisted, probably, for the most part, of citizens, or at least subjects. But in addition to these every army at this period was attended by squadrons of light horse composed entirely of bar­barians | and the chief duty performed by those


named above was guarding the pioneers as they performed their labours in advance of the army. When Tacitus speaks of " Alares Fannonios, robur equitatus" {Ann. xv. 10) he must mean cavalry of a different description from the Pan-nonii veredarii of Hyginus, who, probably, re' sembled the Cossacks of modern warfare.

14. Cohortes peditatae^ were battalions raised chiefly in the provinces, composed of Roman citi­zens, of subjects and allies, or of citizens, allies, and subjects indiscriminately. They were, it would appear, not bound down by the same strict rules with regard to the period of service as the legionaries, not so heavily equipped, and not sub­jected to the same exhausting labours. Vegetius, in the chapter where he endeavours to account for the decay of the legionary force (ii. 3), throws some light upon these points. To this class of troops belonged the cokortes auxiliares, the awxilia, coltortium^ and the sociorum cokories9 of whoitn* we read in Tacitus, together with a multitude of others recorded in inscriptions and named for the most part from the nations of which they were com­posed. The expression coliortem dedmam octavam (Tacit. H. i. 64) indicates that these cohorts were numbered regularly like the legions. Hyginus provides accommodation for Cohortes peditatae mil-liariae tres, and Cohortes peditatae qningenariae tres.

15. Cohortes Equitatae differed from the Pedi­tatae in this only, that they were mad'e up of in­fantry combined with cavalry. A Cohors Equitatct, Milliaria contained 700 foot soldiers divided into 10 centuries, and 240 horsemen divided into 10 turmae. A Cohors Equitata quingenari® contained 380 foot-soldiers divided into six (?) centuries and 120 horsemen, divided into 5 turmae. There is' an inscription in the collections of Gruter (p. MCVTn.) to the memory of L. Flavius, who among other military titles is styled praef. Con, p&imae. equitatae. Civ. roman. in. german. in-periore ; Pliny, in one of his epistles- (x. 108), and Trajan in his reply, make use of the terms Cohors equestris, the former mentioning a centurion in connection with it, which proves that it contained infantry. Tacitus (Hist. iv. 19) speaks of cohorts of the Batavi and Canninefates, who, among other demands, insisted that the number of horse should be increased {augeri numerum equitieni) ; and Josephus, in describing the army of Vespasian1, notices 10 cohorts (cnreipai) of 600 infantry and 120 cavalry, a series of passages which evidently refer to Cohortes Equitatae. The Cohortes Pe­ditatae are not mentioned under that name except by Hyginus, but are indicated by Tacitus inv the words {Ann. xiii. 35), " ex Germania legio cum equitibus alariis et pediiatu cohortium.'''' . Hyginus allows space for Cohortes equitatae mittiariae duae^ and Cohortes equitatae quingenariae quatuor.

16. Classic^ which we may fairly render Ma­rines, were employed, according to Hyginus,. as pioneers. They corresponded to the Navales Socii; under the republic, who were always regarded as inferior to regular soldiers, and were recruited, as we learn from PolyDitrs, among those persons whose fortune did not entitle them to enlist in the legions. After the establishment by Augustus of regular permanent fleets at Misenum, Ravenna, and on the coast of Gaul, a large body of men must have been required to man them, who, when their services were not required afloat, were called upon, at least in great emergencies, to serve' ;*3

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