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EXERCITUS.

comp. xl. 18), whence the legionaries are styled ot e/c rov Kara\6yov ffrparev6fjiei'oi (Iv. 24, Hi. 22, lix. 2), or simply Kara\sy6fj,evoi (liv. 25).

Neither Livy nor Dionysius notice the first es­tablishment of the legion, but they both take for granted that it existed from the very foundation of the city, while Varro (L. L. v. § 89) and Plutarch {Rom. 13) expressly ascribe the institution to Romulus. The latter speaks of the band led by Romulus against Amulius as being divided into centuries (Siivafiiv cnMAeAo%ia'jue;/77i> €is e/caro-(rrdas), giving at the same time the origin of the term maniple, and the former states that Romulus, to establish his legion, took 1000 men from each tribe.

Constitution of the Legion. The legion for many centuries was composed exclusively of Roman citizens. By the ordinances of Servius Tullius those alone who were enrolled in the five classes were eligible, and one of the greatest changes in­troduced by Marius was the admission of all orders of citizens, including the lowest, into the ranks. (Sail. Jug. 86 ; Plut.Jkfar. 9 ; Flor. iii. 1; Gell. xvi. 10.) Up to the year b. c. 107 no one was permitted to serve among the regular troops of the state except those who were regarded as pos­sessing a strong personal interest in the stability of the commonwealth, but the principle having been at this period abandoned, the privilege was ex­tended after the close of the Social War (b. c. 87) ;to nearly the whole of the free population of Italy, and by the famous edict of Caracalla (or perhaps of M. Aurelius), to the Avhole Roman world. Long before this, however, the legions were raised chiefly in the provinces, and hence are ranked by ITyginus among the provincialis militia (legioncs quoniam sunl militiae provincialis fidelissima). Even Tinder Augustus, the youth of Latium, Umbria, Etruria, and the ancient colonies, served chiefly in the household troops (Tac. Ann. iv. 5), who for this reason are complimented by Otho as Italiae alumni et vere Romana juventus (Tac. Hist. i. 84). But although the legions contained comparatively few native Italians, it does not appear that the admis­sion of foreigners not subjects was ever practised upon a large scale until the reign of the second Claudius (a. d. 268—270), who incorporated a large body of vanquished Goths, and of Probus (a. d. 276—282), who distributed 16,000 Germans among legionary and frontier battalions (numeris et limitaneis militibus, Vopisc. Prob. 14.). From this time forward what had originally been the leading characteristic of the legion was rapidly obliterated, so that under Diocletian, Constantine, and their successors, the best soldiers in the Roman armies were barbarians. The name Legion was still re­tained in the fifth century, since it appears in an edict addressed by the emperors Arcadius and Honorius to the prefect Romulianus (Cod. Justin. 12. tit. 36. s. 13) and also in the tract known as the Notitia Dignitatum Imperil (c. 59). It pro­bably did not fall into total disuse until the epoch of Justinian's sway ; but in the numerous ordi­nances of that prince with regard to military affairs nothing bears in any way upon the constitution of the legion, nor does the name occur in legal docu­ments subsequent to the above-mentioned edict of Arcadius and Honorius.

There is yet another circumstance connected with the social position of the soldier to which it is very necessary to advert, if we desire to form a

491

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distinct idea of the changes gradually introduced into the Roman military system. The Roman armies for a long period consisted entirely of what we might term militia. Every citizen was, to a certain extent, trained to arms during a fixed period of his life ; he was, at all times, liable to be called upon to serve; but the legion in which he was enrolled was disbanded as soon as the special service for which it had been levied, was performed ; and although these calls were frequent in the early ages of .the kingdom and the common­wealth, when the enemies of the republic were almost at the gates, yet a few months, or more frequently, a few weeks or even days, sufficed to decide the fortunes of the campaign. The Roman annalists assure us that a Roman army had never wintered in the field, until more than three cen­turies after the foundation of the city, when the blockade of Veii required the constant presence of the besiegers. As the scene of action became by degrees farther removed from Latium, when southern Italy and Sicily were now the seat of war — when the existence of Rome was menaced by the Carthaginian invasion — when her armies were opposed to such leaders as Pyrrhus, Hamilcar, and Hannibal — it was, of course, impossible to leave the foe for a moment unwatched ; and the exigencies of the state rendered it necessary that the same legions and the same soldiers should remain in activity for several years in succession. This protracted service became inevitable as the dominion of Rome extended over Greece and Asia, when the distances rendered frequent relief im­practicable ; but down to the very termination of the republic, the ancient principle was recognised, that when a campaign was concluded, the soldier was entitled to return home and to resume the occupation of a. peaceful citizen. It was a con­viction that their leader had broken faith with them by commencing a new war against Tigranes, after the defeat of Mithridates, their proper and legitimate opponent, which induced the troops of Lucullus to mutiny, and compelled their leader to abandon his Armenian conquests. Hence, for up­wards of seven centuries, there was no such thing as the military profession, and no man considered himself as a soldier in contradistinction to other callings. Every individual knew that he was bound as a member of the body politic to perform certain duties ; but these duties were performed without distinction by all — at least by all whose stake in the prosperity of their country was con­sidered sufficient to insure their zeal in defending it; and each man, when his share of this obligation was discharged, returned to take his place in society, and to pursue his ordinary avocations. The admission of the Capite Censi into the ranks, persons who, probably, found their condition as soldiers much superior to their position as civilians, and who could now cherish hopes of amassing wealth by plunder, or of rising to honour as officers, tended to create a numerous class disposed to de­vote themselves permanently to a military life as the only source from whence they could secure comfort and distinction. The long-continued operations of Caesar in Gaul, and the necessity imposed upon Pompeius of keeping up a large force as a check on his dreaded rival, contributed strongly to nourish this feeling, which was, at length, fully developed and confirmed by the civil broils which lasted for twenty years, and by the

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