The Ancient Library

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On this page: E Rfc I Us – Ergastulum – Erogatio – Erotia – Errhephoria – Eschara – Esseda – Essedarii – Evtctio


gildS) or fraternities for mutual aid, among the an­cient Saxons, resembled the epowot of,the Greeks. (Turner's Hist, of ike Anglo-Saxons^ iv. 10.) Com­pare also the ayon-cu, or love-feasts of the early Christians.

The word epavos is often used metaphorically, to signify any contributions or friendly advance of money. [C. R. K.]

ERGASTULUM was a private prison attached to most Roman farms, called career rusticus by Juvenal (xiv. 24), where the slaves were made to work in chains. It appears to have been usually under ground, and according to Columella (i. 6) ought to be lighted by narrow windows, which should be too high from the ground to be touched by the hand. The slaves confined in an ergastu­lum were also employed to cultivate the fields in chains. (Plin. //. N. xviii. 7- § 4 ; Flor. iii. 19.) Slaves who had" displeased their masters were punished by imprisonment in the ergastulum ; and in the same place all slaves who could not be de­pended upon or were barbarous in their habits, were regularly kept. A trustworthy slave had the care of the ergastulum, and was therefore called ergastida-rius. (Colum. i. 8.) According to Plutarch (Tib. Gracch. 8), these prisons arose in consequence of the conquest of Italy by the Romans, and the great number of barbarous slaves who were em­ployed to cultivate the conquered lands. In the time of Hadrian and Antoninus, many enactments were made to ameliorate the condition of slaves ; and among other salutary measures, Hadrian abo­lished the ergastula, which must have been liable to great abuse in the hands of tyrannical masters. (Spart. Hadrian^ 18, compared with Gains, i. 53.) For further information on the subject, see Bris-sonius, Antiq. Select. i\. 9 ; Lipsius, Elect, ii. 15, Opera, vol. i. p. 317, &c. ; Gottling, Gesch. der Rom. Staatsv. p. 135.

E RFC I US, a military engine full of sharp spikes, which was placed by the gate of the camp to prevent the approach of the enemy. (Caes. B. C. iii. 67 ; Sallust, apud Non. xviii. 16 ; Lipsius, Poliorcet. v. 4.)

EROGATIO. [aquaeductus, p. 115, a.]

EROTIA or EROTI'DIA (epuria or epwr/- Sta), the most solemn of all the festivals celebrated in the Boeotian town of Thespiae. It took place every fifth year, and in honour of Eros, the prin­ cipal divinity of the Thespians. Respecting the particulars nothing is known, except that it was solemnised with contests in music and gymnastics. (Pint. Amat. 1 ; Paus. ix. 31. § 3 ; Athen. xiii. p. 561.) The worship of Eros seems to have been established at Thespiae from the earliest times ; and the ancient symbolic representation of the god, a rude stone (ap-ybs Ai0os), continued to be looked upon with particular reverence even when sculp­ ture had attained the highest degree of perfection among the Greeks. (Paus. ix. 27. § 1 ; compare Schol. ad Pind. Olymp. vii. 154 ; Ritschl, in the Rhein. Mus. vol. ii. p. 106.) [L. S.]

ERRHEPHORIA or ERSEPHO'RIA fatyopia, or ep(r*](f)6pia.') [arrephoria.]

ESCHARA (e<rxcfy>a). [Focus.]

ESSEDA or E'SSEDUM (from the Celtic Ess,, a carriage, Ginzrot, vol. i. p. 377), the name of a chariot used, especially in war, by the Britons, the Gauls and Belgae (Virg. Georg. iii. 204; Ser-Vius, ad loc.} ; and also by the Germans (Pers. vi. 47).


According to the account given by Caesar (Bettv Gall. iv. 33), and agreeably to the remarks of Bio-dorus Siculus (v. 21, 29), the method of using the essedum in the ancient British army was very similar to the practice of the Greeks in the heroie ages, as described by Homer, and in the article currus. The principal difference seems to have been that the essedum was stronger and more ponderous than the fiitypos, that it was open before instead of behind ; and that in consequence of these circumstances and the width of the pole, the owner was able, whenever he pleased, to run along the pole (de temone Britanno excidet, Juv. iv. 125), and even to raise himself upon the yoke, and then to retreat with the greatest speed into the body of the car, which he drove with extra­ordinary swiftness and skill. From the extremity of the pole, he threw his missiles, especially .the cateia (Val. Flacc. Argon, vi. 83). It appears also that these cars were purposely made as noisy as possible, probably by the creaking and clanging. of the wheels (strepitit, rotarum^ Caes. I. c. ; com-: pare Tacit. Agric. 35 ; Esseda multisonora, Claud. Epig. iv.) ; and that this was done in order to strike dismay into the enemy. The formidable British warriors who drove these chariots, the " car-borne" of Ossian, were called in Latin Essedarii. (Caes. B. G. iv. 24 ; Cic. ad Fam. vii. 6.) There were about 4000 of them in the army of Cassibelaunus. (Caes. B. G. v. 19.) Having been captured, they were sometimes exhibited in the gladiatorial shows at Rome, and seem to have been great favourites with the people. (Sueton. Calig. 35, Claud. 21.) They must have held the highest rank in the armies of .their own country ; and Tacitus (Agric. 12) qbserves that the driver of the car ranked above his fighting, companion, which was the reverse of the Greek usage.

The essedum was adopted for purposes of con­venience and luxury among the Romans. (Propert. ii. 1. 76 ; Cic. ad Att. vi. 1 ; Ovid. Am. ii. 16, 49.) Cicero (Phil. ii. 24) mentions the use of it on one occasion by the tribune of the people as a piece of extravagance ; but in the time of Seneca,, it seems to have been much more common ; for he (Epist. 57) reckons the sound of the 4< essedae transcurrentes " among those noises which did not distract him. As used by the Romans, the esse­dum may have differed from the cisium in this ; that the cisium was drawn by one horse (see wood­cut, p. 288), the essedum always by a pair. The essedum, like the cisium, appears to have been kept for hire at the post-houses or stations (Salo-nem quinto essedo videbis, Mart.x. 104.) [MANSio.] The essedum must have been similar to the Covi-nus, except that the latter had a cover. [J. Y.j

ESSEDARII. [esseda.]

EVTCTIO. If the purchaser of a thing was deprived of it by a third person by legal process (evicted), the seller was bound to make good the loss (evictionem pmestare). If the seller knew that he was selling what was not his own, this was a case of dolus, and he was bound in case of eviction to make good to the purchaser all loss and damage that he sustained. If there was no dolus on the part of the seller, he was simply bound to make good to the purchaser the value of the thing at the time of eviction. It was necessary for the purchaser to neglect no proper means cf defence, when an attempt was made to evict him ; and it was his duty to give the seller notice of the ad-

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