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mortgages, and upon no account be lent out upon the more lucrative but hazardous security of bottomry. (Suidas, s. v. ''Eyyeiov.}
To insure the performance of these duties the Jaw permitted any free citizen to institute a public action, as, for instance, an apagoge or eisangelia against a guardian who maltreated his ward (tfaKc£cr€tts bp(pavQv\ or a 7pa<£')j eTriTpoTr/js for neglect or injury of his person or property ; and the punishment, upon conviction, depended entirely upon the greater or less severity of the dicasts. (Meier, Ait. Proc. p. 294.) If the guardian pre ferred that the estate should be farmed, the regular method of accomplishing this was by making an application to the .archon, who thereupon let the inheritance to the highest bidder, and took care that the farmer should hypothecate a sufficient piece of ground or othei' real property to ..guarantee the fulfilment of the contract (ttTroTi/^^a). In some cases the guardian might be compelled to adopt this course or be punished, if the lease were irregularly <or fraudulently made, by a phasis, which, upon this occasion, might be instituted by any free citizen. The guardianship expired when the ward had attained his eighteenth year, and if the estate had been leased out, the farmer paid in the market-place the capital he had received to trade with, and the interest that had accrued (Dem. c. ApJwb. i. 832. 1) ; if, however, the in heritance had been managed by the -guardian, it was from him that the heir received Jais property and the account of his disbursements during the minority. In case the accounts were unsatisfactory, the heir might institute an action eVtr^oTTTjs against his late guardian; this, however, was a mere pri vate lawsuit, in which the. damages and epobelia only could be lost by .the defendant, to the latter of which the (plaintiff was equally liable upon fail ing to oibtain the votes of:a fifth of the dieasts. This action was barred by the lapse of five years from the termination of the guardianship; and, if the defendant in it clietL: before that time, an action /3Aa§7}s would lie against* his representatives to re cover what was claimedtfrom his estate. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 444, &c.) [J. S. M.]
EPOBELIA (<brco€eMa), as its etymology im plies, at the rate of -one obelus for a drachma, or one in six, was payaible am the assessment (Ti^/xa) of several private -causes, and sometimes in a case of phasis, by the litigant that failed to obtain the votes of one -fifth of the dicasts. (Dem. <c, Aphob. p. 834. 25, c. Euerg. et Mnesib. p. 11,58. 20.) It is not, however, quite certain that such was in variably the case when the defeated suitor was the defendant in the cause (Meier, Att. P,roc. p. 730) ; though in two great .classes, namely, cross suits (avriypa<t>al)^ and those in which a preliminary question as to the admissibiEity of the original cause of action was raised (7rapcrypa<|>cu), it may;be confidently asserted. As the object of the regula tion was to inflict a penalty upon, litigiousness, and reimburse the person that was causelessly at tacked for his trouble and anxiety, the fine was paid to the successful suitor in private causes, ,and those cases of phasis in which a private citizen was the party immediately aggrieved. In public ac cusations, in general, a fine of a thousand drachmae, payable to the public treasury, or a complete or partial .dis&anchisement, supplied the place of the epobelia as a punishment for frivolous prosecu tions. [J. S, M.j
EPOMIS (eTroyu!?). [tunica.]
EPONIA (eTraw'a). [TELOS.]
EPONYMUS (eTTctw/xos), having or giving a name, was the surname of the first of the nine archons at Athens, because his name, like that of the consuls at Rome, was used in public records to mark the year [archon]. The expression e7r<£-j/v/aol ru>v rj\iKi£>v, whose number is stated by Suidas, the Etymologicum Magn., and other grammarians, to have been forty, likewise applies to the chief-archon of Athens. Every Athenian had to serve in the army from his 19th to his 60th year, i.,e. during the arehonship of forty archons. Now as an army generally consisted of men from the •age of 18 to that of 60, the forty archons under whom they had been enlisted, were called sirwvv-jj.ol t&v rjXiKi&v^ in order to distinguish them from the eiruvvfjioL t&v <pvA$>v. (Compare Demosth. ap. Harpocrat. s. v. 'ettcoj/u/aoz, and Bekker, Anecdota, p. 245.) At Sparta the first of the five ephors gave his name to the year, and was therefore called e<£opos eira>vvfj.os. (Paus. iii. Hi § 2.)
It was a ,very :pr&va;lent tendency among the ^ancients in general -to ;refer the origin of their institutions to some;ancient or fabulous hero (ap%?7-76T77S1, Demosth. c. Macart. p. 1072), from whom, in most cases, the institution was also believed to have derived its name, so that the hero became its ap^Tj'yerrjs Ifrt&vvfjLos. In later times new institutions were often named after ancient heroes, on account of some fabulous or legendary connection which was thought to exist between them and the new institutions, and the heroes thus became, as it were, their patrons or tutelary deities. A striking instance of this custom are the names of the ten Attic tribes instituted 'by Cleisthenes, all of which were named after some .national hero. (Demosth. Epitaph, p. 1397, &c. ; Paus. i. 5.) These ten heroes who were at Athens, generally called the eTTwi/UjUoz, or eTrcow/jLoi r&v tyvX&v, were honoured with statues, which stood in the Ceramicus, near the Tholos. (Paus. i. 5. § 1; Suidas and Etymol. Magn. s. v. 3E7rc6j/Uyy,oi.) If an Athenian citizen wished to make proposals for a new law, he exhibited them for public inspection in front of these statues of the eir^vv^ot^ whence the expressions e/c0e?z/cu Trp^o^ej/ tcov eTrojyu/^cyj/, or Trpbs rous eirco-vvpovs. (Aeschin. c. Ctesiph. p. 59, ed Steph.; Wolf, Prolog, ad Demosth. Leptin. p. 133.) [L. S.] EPOPTAE (eTToVrcu). [E.1.EUSINIA.] EPULO'NES, who were originally three in number (Triumviri Epulones), were first created in b. c. 196, to attend to the Epulum Jovis ('Valer. Max.'ii. 1. § 2 ; Liv. xxxi. 4 ; Gell. xii. 8), and the banquets given in honour of the other gods ; which duty had originally belonged to the Pontifices. (Liv. xxxiii. 42 ; Cic. De Orat. iii. 19, De ffarusp. Respons. 10.; Festus, s. v. Epo~ lonos.} Their number was afterwards increased to seven (Gell. i. 12 ; Lucan, i. 602), and they were called Septemviri Epulones or Septemviri Ep\ilonum;ainder which names they are frequently mentioned in inscriptions. (Orelli, Inscrip. No. 590, 773, 2259, 2260, 2365.) Julius Caesar added /three more (Dion Cass. xliii. 51), but after his time the number appears to have been again limited to seven.
The Epulones formed a collegium, and were one of the four great religious corporations at Home ; the other three were those of the Pontifices, Ai> gures, and Quindecemviri. (Dion Cass. liii. 1,