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Forum at Pompeii. The holes seen at the back of the frieze received the beams which supported an upper gallery.
directors of the public works. ('ETrnrraral §rj(ji.o(riow epyoDj/.) These directors had different names, as reixo-rroio't, the repairers of the walls ; Tpi7?po7T0iOf,the builders of the triremes ; rafypoirotoi, the repairers of the trenches, &c.; all of whom were elected by the tribes, one from each : but the most distinguished of these were the reixonoioi. (Aeschin. c. CtesipJi. pp. 400, 422, 425.) Over other public buildings a manager of public works had the superintendence; and it was in this capacity that Pericles, and subsequently Lycurgus, undertook so many works of architecture. In the inscriptions relating to the building of the temple of Athena Polias, we find eiriffraral mentioned. (Bo'ckh, PuU. Econ. of Athens, p. 203, 2nd ed.) Similar authorities were appointed for the care of the roads, and of the supply of water (65.-;7roiot, Aeschin. c. Ctesiph. p. 419 ; e-n-iarraral r£>v vftdrcav, Pint. Them. 31 ; Schbmann, Antiq. Juris Publ. Grace, p. 247).
The directors received the money which was
necessary for thes'e works from the public treasury (e/c T7}9 Stot/cigcrews, Aeschin. c. Ciesipli. p. 425).
EPISTOLEUS (eVio-ToAsus), was the officer second in rank in the Spartan fleet, and succeeded to the command if any thing happened to the jsjvdpxos or admiral. (Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 23, iv. 8. § 11, v. 1. § 5, 6; Sturtz, Lex. Xenoph. s. v.) Thus, when the Chians and the > other allies of Sparta on the Asiatic coast sent to Sparta to request that Lysander might be again appointed to the command of the navy, he was sent with the title of eTntrToAevs, because the laws of Sparta did not permit the same person to hold the office of vav&pxos twice. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. § 7.)
EPISTYLIUM (evurrfaiov), is properly, as the name implies, the architrave, or lower member of an entablature, which lies immediately over the columns. (Pint. Per. 13; Pans. pass.; Varr. R. R. iii. 2 ; Festus, s. v. ; comp. columna, p. 324, a) The rules for the height of the architrave are given by Vitruvius (iii. 3. s. 5, ed. Schn.). In the best examples of the Doric order, the front of the architrave was a plain flat surface, with no carvings, but sometimes ornamented with metal shields affixed to it over each column, as in the Parthenon, where there are also inscriptions between the shields. (See Lucas's model.) In the Ionic and Corinthian orders it was cut up into two or usually three surfaces (fasciae), projecting beyond one another, the edges of which were afterwards decorated with mouldings. (See the woodcuts under columna.) Originally the architrave was the main beam, laid along the top of the columns to support the roof. When stone was used, a natural limit was set to the length of the pieces of the architrave, and consequently the distance of the columns, by the impossibility of obtaining blocks of stone or marble beyond a certain size. In the temple of Artemis at Ephesus the pieces of the architrave were so large that Pliny wonders how they could have been raised to their places. (H.N. xxxvi. 14. s. 21.) When an intercolum-niation was of the kind called araeostyle, that is, when the columns were more than three diameters apart, the epistylium was necessarily made of wood instead of stone (Vitruv. iii. 2. s. 3. § 5. ed. Schn.); a construction exemplified by the restoration in the annexed woodcut (Pompeii, vol. i. p. 343) of the Doric portico, which surrounds three sides of the
The word is sometimes also used for the whole of the entablature. [P. S.J
EPITIMIA (eVm/Ata). [atimia.]
EPITRIERARCHEMATOS DIKE i7/japx7?juaros 5/K??). [trierarchia.]
EPITROPES GRAPHE (eirirpoirys [epitropus.]
EPITROPUS (eVfrpomw), which signifies literally a person to whom any thing is given in charge (Dem. c Aphob. i. p. 819. 18), occurs, however, much more frequently in the sense of a guardian of orphan children. Of such guardians there were at Athens three kinds : first, those appointed in the will of the deceased father; secoridty, the next of kin, whom the law designated as tutores legitimi in default of such appointment, and who required the authorization of the archon to enable them to act; and lastly, such persons as the .archon selected if there were no next of kin living to undertake the office. The duties of the guardian comprehended the education, maintenance, and protection of the ward, the assertion of his rights, and the safe custody and profitable disposition of his inheritance during his minority, besides making a proper provision for the widow if she remained in the house of her late husband. In accordance with these, the guardian was bound to appear in court in all actions in behalf of or against his ward, and give in an account of the taxable capital (Ti/XTjjUa) when, an elcr^opa (the only impost to which orphans were liable) was levied, and make the proportionate payment in the minor's name. With reference to the disposition of the property, two courses were open to the guardian to pursue, if the deceased had left no will, or no specific directions as to its management, viz., to. keep it in his own hands and employ it as he best could for the benefit of the minor (Stoi/ceiV), or let it out to farm to the highest. bidder (fjuffdovv rov olkoj>). In the former case it seems probable (Dem. c. Onetor. i. p. 865. 17) that a constant control of the guardian's proceedings might be exercised by the archon; and a special. law ordained that all money belonging to a minor should be vested ill
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