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On this page: Epfscopi – Epidauria – Epidicasia – Epidoseis – Epigamia – Epigrapheis – Epirhedium – Episcepsis – Epistates – Epjdemiurgi


the offender, called /m/caJo-ews eiVcry-yeX/a. (Isaeus, De Pyrr. Hered. p. 76 ; Meier, Att. Proc. pp. '269, 460,468.) [C. R.K.]

EPIDAURIA. [eleusinia.]

EPIDICASIA (tirfiiKcuria). [herbs.]

EPJDEMIURGI. [demiurgl]

EPIDOSEIS (e7n5o<ms), were voluntary con­tributions, either in money, arms, or ships, which were made by the Athenian citizens in order to meet the extraordinary demands of the state. When the expences of the state were greater than its revenue, it was usual for the prytanes to sum­mon an assembly of the people, and after ex­plaining the necessities of the state, to call upon the citizens to contribute according to their means. Those who were willing to contribute then rose and mentioned what they would give ; while those, who were unwilling to give any thing, remained silent or retired privately from the assembly. (Pint. Alcib. 10, Phoc. 9 ; Dem. c. Meid. p. 567 ; Theophras. Char. 22 ; A then, iv. p. 168,e.) The names of those who had promised to contribute, together with the amount of their contributions, were written on tablets, which were placed before the statues of the Eponymi, where they remained till the amount was paid. (Isaeus, De Dicaeog. p. Ill, ed. Reisk.)

These epidoseis, or voluntary contributions, were frequently very large. Sometimes the more wealthy citizens voluntarily undertook a trierarchy, or the expences of equipping a trireme. (Dem. c. Meid. p. 566. 2.3.) We read that Pasion furnished 1000 shields, together with five triremes, which he equipped at his own expeiice. (Dem. c. Steph. p. 1127.'12.) Chrysippus presented a talent to the state, when Alexander moved against Thebes (Dam. c. Phorm. p. 918. 20) ; Aristophanes, the son of Nicophemus, gave 30^000 drachmae for an expedition against Cyprus (Lysias, pro Aristoph. bonis, p. 644) ; Charidemus and Diotimus, two commanders, made a free gift of 800 shields (Dem. •pro Coron. p. 265. 18) ; and similar instances of liberality are mentioned by Bb'ckh {Publ. Econ. of Athens^yp. 586, 587, 2nd. ed.), from whom the preceding examples have been taken. (Compare Schomann, De Comitiis, p. 292.^

EPIGAMIA (eTrryo/Afa). [CiviTAS (greek.)]

EPIGRAPHEIS (iiriypaQeis). [EispHORA.] EPIMELE'TAE (e^e^rat), the names of various magistrates and functionaries at Athens.

1. 'ETHjasA/tyT^s tt)s KGivr\s TrpocrdSov, more usu­ally called relucts, the treasurer or manager of the public revenue. [tamias.]

2. 'E-rri^\^ral rcov fjLopiwj' 'EAcucoz/, were persons . chosen from among the Areopagites to take care of . the sacred olive trees. (Lysias> Areopag. p. 284.5.)

3. 'ETn/ieA^raiToD'E/xTToptou, were the overseers of/the emporium. [emporium.] They were ten in number, and were elected yearly by lot. (Har-pocrat. s. v.) They had the entire management of the emporium, and had jurisdiction in all breaches of the commercial laws. (Dem. c. Lacrit. p. 941. 15. c. Theoc. p. 1324 ; Dinarch. c. Aristog. pp. 8], 82.) According to Aristotle (apud Harpocrat. s, v.), it was part of their duty to compel the merchants to bring, into the city two-thirds of the corn which had been brought by sea into the Attic emporium ; by which we learn that only one-third could be carried away to other countries from the port of the Peiraeeus. (Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens., ,pp. 48, 81, 2nd ed. • Meier, Att. Proc. p. 80\)


4. 'EiriucXtiral r&v Mva-Trjpico^ were, m con­nection with the king archon, the managers of the Eleusinian mysteries. They were elected Toy open vote, and were four in number ; of whom two were chosen from the general body of citizens, one from the Eumolpidae, and one from the Ceryces. (Harpocrat and Suid. s. v.; Dem. c.Meid. p. 570. 6.)

5. 3Eirifj.e\7]rai t&v vc-wpiciw, the inspectors of the dockyards, formed a regular apx^?? an(i were not an extraordinary commission, as appears from Demosthenes (c. Euerg. et Mnes. p. 1145), Aes-chines (c. Ctesiph. p. 419), and the inscriptions published by Bockh (Urkunden uber das Seewesen des Attisches Staates, Berlin, 1840), in which they are sometimes called ol 'dpxovres ev rols vecapiois, and their office designated an apx^- (No. xvi. b. 104, &c. ; No. x. c. 125 ; No. xiv. c. 122. 138.) We learn from the same inscriptions that their of­fice was yearly, and that they were ten in number. It also appears that they were elected by lot from those persons who possessed a knowledge of ship­ping.

The principal duty of the inspectors of the dock­yards was to take care of the ships, and all the rigging, tools, &c. ((r/cew/) belonging to them. They also had to see that the ships were sea­worthy ; and for this purpose they availed them­selves of the services of a So/cijuarrTTjy, who was well skilled in such matters. (Bockh, Ibid. No. ii. 56.) They had at one time the charge of various kinds of military cr/tei/Tj, which did not necessarily belong to ships, such as engines of war (No. xi. m), which were afterwards, however, entrusted to the generals by a decree of the senate and people. (No. xvi. a. 195.) They had to make out a list of all those persons who owed anything to the clocks (Dem. c. Euerg. et Mnes. p. 1145), and also to get in what was due. (Id. c. Androt. p. 612.) We also find that they sold the rigging, &c., of the ships and purchased new, under the direc­tion of the senate,, but not on their own responsi­bility. (No. xiv. b. 190, &c., compared with Nos. xiv. xvi. u.) They had "tiyepoviav StKaffrypiov in conjunction with the aTrotrroAeTs in all matters connected with their own department. (Dem. c. Euerg. et Mnes. p. 1147.) To assist them in dis­charging their duties they had a secretary (ypuiji-vs, No. xvi. b. 1 65), and a public servant ($77-ez> tois r/ecupiofs, No. xvi. b. 135). For a further account of these inspectors, see Bockh^ Urkivnden, &c. pp. 48 — 64.

6. 'ETn/xeA^ral tcoi/ (£>uAwj/, the inspectors of the (f>v\cu or tribes. [TRIBUS-]

EPIRHEDIUM. [rheda.]

EPISCEPSIS (jirlffKiityis'). [martyria.]

EPFSCOPI (eTTiV/coTroi), inspectors, who were sometimes sent by the Athenians to subject states. Harpocration compares them to the Lacedaemonian harmosts, and says that they were also called <f)v\aic€S. It appears that these Episcopi received a salary at the cost of the cities over which the}" presided. (Aristoph. Aves, 1022, &c., with Schol.'; Harpocrat. s. v. ; Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens^ pp. 156, 238j 2d ed. ; Schomann, Antiq. Juris Pub. Graec. p. 432. 18.)

EPISTATES (eTrKrnjfrrTjs), which means a per-son placed over any thing, was the name of two distinct classes of functionaries in the Athenian state ; namely, of the chairman of the senate and assembly of the people, respecting whose duties see the articles boule and ecclesia ; and also of the

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