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able homicide, whether from the similarity of the latter (as regards the guilt of the perpetrator) to acts of accidental homicide, or as requiring a like expiation. (Plat. Leg. ix. pp. 864, 875.) For acts of wilful murder, on the other hand, the punishment was either death or aeityvyia, and therefore no expiation (KaOaports) was connected with the administration of justice in' such cases, so that there could be no objection against their being tried by the court of the Areiopagus, though its members did not of necessity belong to the old aristocracy.
Such briefly are the reasons which Muller alleges in support of this hypothesis, and if they are valid there can be little doubt that the separation alluded to was effected when the Athenian nobility lost their supremacy in the state, and a timocracy or aristocracy of wealth was substituted for an aristocracy of birth. This, as is well known, happened in the time of Solon.
Lastly, we may remark, that the comparatively unimportant and antiquated duties of the Ephetae sufficiently explain the statement in Pollux (I. c.\ that their court gradually lost all respect, and be came at last an object of ridicule. [R. W.]
EPHIPPIUM (a<rrpd§7), tylmriov, tyimreiov), a saddle. Although the Greeks occasionally rode without any saddle (ctt! tyi\ov 'linrov, Xenoph. De Re Eques. vii. 5), yet they commonly used one, and from them the name, together with the thing, was borrowed by the Romans. (Varr. De Re Rust. ii. 7; Caes. B. G. iv. 2; Hor. Epist. i. 14. 43 ; Gellius, v. 5.) It has indeed been asserted, that the use of saddles was unknown until the fourth century of our era. But Ginzrot, in his valuable work on the history of carriages (vol. ii. c. 26), has shown, both from the general practice of the Egyptians and other Oriental nations, from the pictures preserved on the walls of houses at Herculaneum, and from the expressions employed by J. Caesar and other authors, that the term " ephip-
piiim" denoted not a mere horse-cloth, a skin, or a flexible covering of any kind, but a saddle-tree, or frame of wood, which, after being filled with a stuffing of wool or cloth, was covered with softer materials, and fastened by means of a girth (cingu-lum^ zono) upon the back of the animal. The ancient saddles appear, indeed, to have been thus far different from ours, that the cover stretched upon the hard frame was probably of stuffed or padded cloth rather than leather, and that the saddle was, as it were, a cushion fitted to the horse's back. Pendent cloths (crTpw/xara, strata) were always attached to it so as to cover the sides of the animal; but it was not provided with stirrups. As a substitute for the use of stirrups the horses, more particularly in Spain, were taught to kneel at the word of command, when their riders wished to mount them. See the preceding figure from an antique lamp found at Herculaneum, and compare Strabo, iii. 1. p. 436, ed. Sieb.; and Silius Italicus, x. 465.
The saddle with the pendent cloths is also exhibited in the annexed coin of Q. Labienus.
EPHORI ("EQopoi). Magistrates called Epliori or " Overseers" were common to many Dorian constitutions in times of remote antiquity. Cyrene and the mother state of Thera may be mentioned as examples: the latter colonized from Laconia in early ages, and where, as we are told, the ephors were eVoWjUoi, i. e. gave their name to their year of office. (Heracl. Pont. 4.) The ephoralty at Sparta is classed by Herodotus (i. 65) among the institutions of Lycurgus. Since, however, the ephori are not mentioned in the oracle which contains a general outline of the constitution ascribed to him (Pint. Lycurg. 6), we may infer that no new powers were given to them by that legislator, or in the age of which he may be considered the representative. Another account refers the institution of the Spartan ephoralty to Theopompus (b. c. 770—720), who is said to have founded this office with a view of limiting the authority of the kings, and to have justified the innovation by remarking that " he handed down the royal power to his descendants more durable, because he had diminished it." (Aristot. Polit. v. 9.) The inconsistency of these accounts is still farther complicated by a speech of Cleomenes III., who is represented to have stated (Pint. Cleom. 10) that the ephors were originally appointed by the kings, to act for them in a judicial capacity (irpbs rb Kpiveiv) during their absence from Sparta in the first Mes-senian war, and that it was only by gradual usurpations that these new magistrates had made themselves paramount even over the kings themselves. Now, according to some authorities (Thirl-wall, Hist, of Greece^ vol. i. p. 353), Polydorus, the colleague of Theopompus, and one of the kings under whom the first Messenian war (b. c. 743—• 723) was completed, appropriated a part of the