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On this page: Ephesis – Ephestris – Ephetae

EPHETAE.

in the theatre.'(Aeseliin. c. CtesipJi. p. 75, ed. Steph.; ! Plato, Meiiex. p.'249, with StallbaunTs note.) It seems to have been on this occasion that the €^>7]€oi took an oath in the temple of Artemis Aglauros (Demosth. De Fals. Leg. p. 438 ; Pollux, viii. 106), by which they pledged themselves never to disgrace their arms or to desert their comrades ; to fight to the last in the defence of their country, its altars and hearths ; to leave their country not in a worse but in a better state than they found it ; to obey the magistrates and the laws ; to resist all attempts to subvert the institutions of Attica, and finally to respect the religion of their forefathers. This solemnity took place towards the close of the year (ev apxcupecria:s), and the festive season bore the name of e^>?]§ia. (Isaeus, De Apollod. c. 28 ; Demosth. c. Leochar. p. 3092.) The external dis­tinction of the ecf)97§oi consisted in the xXafjivs and the ?r6Ta<ros. (Hemsterhuis, ad Polluc. x. 164.)

During the two years of the e'^7?^e:a, which may be considere'd as a kind of apprenticeship in arms, and in which the young men prepared themselves for the higher duties of Ml citizens, they were gene­rally sent into 'the country, under the name of TrepiTroA-CH, to keep watch in the towns and for­tresses, on the coast and frontier, and to perform other duties which might be necessary for the pro­tection of Attica. (Pollux, viii. 106 ; Photius, s. v. Tleptirohos : Plato, De Leg. vi. p. 760, c.) [L. S.] EPHEGE'SIS (<ty^w<m). [endeixis.] EPHE'SIA (e^jetria), a great panegyris of the lonians at Ephesus, the ancient capital of the lonians in Asia. It was held every year, and had, like all panegyreis, a twofold character, that of a bond of political union among the Greeks of the Ionian race, and that of a common worship of the Ephesian Artemis. (Dionys. Hal. Antiq. Rom. iv. p. 229, ed. Sylburg; Strabo, xiv. p.^63.9.) The Ephesia continued to be held in the time of Thu-cydides and Strabo, and the former compares it (iii. 104) to the ancient panegyris of Delos [delia], where a great number of the lonians assembled with their wives and children. Re­specting the particulars of its celebration, we only know that it was accompanied with much mirth and feasting, and that mystical sacrifices were of­fered to the Ephesian goddess. (Strabo, I. c.) That games and contests formed likewise a chief part of the solemnities is clear from liesychius (s. v.), who calls the Ephesia an ay&v ein^aj/TJs. (Compare Pans. vii. 2. § 4 ; Miiller, Dor. ii. 9. § 8 ; Bockh, Corp. Inscript. ii. n. 2909.)

From the manner in which Thucydides and Strabo speak of the Ephesia, it seems that it was only a panegyris of some lonians, perhaps of those who lived in Ephesus itself and its vicinity. Thucydides seems to indicate this by comparing it with the Delian panegyris, which likewise con­sisted onlv of the lonians of the islands near

u

Delos ; and Strabo, who calls the great national

panegyris of all the lonians in the Panionium the

koiv}] Trav'fj'yvpLS tu>v *Iwva}v9 applies to the Ephesia

simply the name iravyyvpis. It may, however,

have existed ever since the time when Ephesus was

the head of the Ionian colonies in Asia. [L. S.]

EPHESIS (€<f>ecns). [appellatio.]

EPHESTRIS (tyearpis). [amictus.]

EPHETAE (e(/>eTai), the name of certain

judges at Athens. They were fifty-one in number,

selected from noble families (apHTTivdyv cupefleWes),

and more than fifty years of age. They formed a

4f>3

EPHETAE.

tribunal of great antiquit}r, so much so, indeed, that Pollux (viii. 125), ascribed their institution to Draco; moreover, if we can depend upon the au« thority of Plutarch (Solon, c. 19), one of Solon's laws (&£oz/es) speaks of the courts of the Ephetae and Areiopagus as co-existent before the time of that legislator. Again, we are told by Pollux (I. c.), the Ephetae formerly sat in one or other of the five courts, according to the nature of the causes they had to try. In historical times, how­ever, they sat mfour only, called respectively the court by the Palladium (rb ern IIaAAa8i<£j), by the Delphinium (rb eVi Ae\rpivia>\ by the Prytaneium (-rb eirl ripuraz/cf&j), and the court at Phreatto or Zea (rb ev ^pearToT). At the first of these courts they tried cases of unintentional, at the second, of intentional but justifiable homicide, such as slay­ing another in self-defence, taking the life of an adulterer, killing a tyrant or a nightly robber. (Plat. Leg. ix. p. 874.) At the Prytaneium, by a strange custom, somewhat analogous to the imposi­tion of a deodand, they passed sentence upon the instrument of murder when the perpetrator of the act was not known. In the court at Phreatto, on the sea-shore at the Peiraeeus, they tried such per­sons as were charged with wilful murder during a temporary exile for unintentional homicide. In cases of this sort, a defendant pleaded his cause on board ship (ttjs yijs ^ cbrrojuej/os), the judges sitting close by him on shore. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 644.) Now we know that the jurisdiction in cases of wilful murder was bv Solon's laws entrusted

*/

to the court of the Areiopagus, which is mentioned by Demosthenes (L. c.) in connection with the four courts in which the Ephetae satv Moreover, Draco, in his Thesmi, spoke of the Ephetae only, though the jurisdiction of the Areiopagus in cases of murder is admitted to have been of great antiquity. Hence Miiller (Eumenid. § 65) conjectures that the court of the Areiopagus was anciently included in the five courts of the Ephetae, and infers, more­over, the early existence of a senate at Athens, resembling the Gerousia at Sparta, and invested with the jurisdiction in cases of homicide. (Thirl-wall, Hist, of Greece^ vol. ii. p. 41.) .The name of Ephetae given to the members of this council was, as he conceives, rather derived from their granting a licence to avenge blood (of e</)iacri tgj ai/Spo^i/a? rbi/ aySp^AarTjj/) than their being appealed to, or from the transfer to them of a jurisdiction which before the time of Draco had belonged to the kings. (Pollux, L c.) If this hypothesis be true, it becomes . a question, why and when was this separation of the courts made ? On this subject Miiller adds, that when an act of homicide was not punished by death or perpetual banishment, the perpetrator had to receive expiation. [Exsi-lium.] Now the atonement for blood and the purification of a shedder of blood, came under the sacred law of Athens, the knowledge of which was confined to the old nobility, even after they had lost their political power. [exegetae.] Con­sequently the administration of the rights of ex­piation could not be taken away from them, and none but an aristocratical court like that of the Ephetae would be competent to grant permission of expiation for homicide, and to preside over the ceremonies connected with it. Accordingly, that court retained the right of decision in actions for manslaughter, in which a temporary flight wa« followed by expiation, and also in cases of justifi-

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