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On this page: Eora – Epariti – Epaulia – Epecjnactae – Ephebeum – Ephebus

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EPEUNACTAE.

EORA. [aeora.] EPANGE'LIA (eirarxeXfe). If a citizen of Athens had incurred ar^ta, the privilege of taking part or speaking in the public assembly was for­feited [atimia]. But as it sometimes might happen that a person, though not formally declared .dm/xos, had committed such crimes as would, on accusation, draw upon him this punishment, it was of course desirable that such individuals, like real c^Ti/xoi, should be excluded from the exercise of the rights of citizens. Whenever, therefore, such a person ventured to speak in the assembly, any Athenian citizen had the right to come for ward "in the assembly itself (Aeschin. c. Timarch. p. 104), and demand of him to establish his right to speak by a trial or examination of his conduct (§o/a,uacria rov /3i0i>), and this demand, denouncement, or threat, was called eTrayyeAia, or eTrayyeTu'a §o/a-[jLaa-ias. The impeached individual was then com­pelled to desist from speaking, and to submit to a scrutiny into his conduct (Pollux, viii. 43; Suiclas, s. v. eTrayyeAta), and if he was convicted, a formal declaration of ari/jiia followed.

Some writers have confounded the erayyeA.ia with SoKi/jLaffia, and considered the two words as synonyms ; but from the statements made above, it is evident that the So/a/mcria is the actual trial, while the eirayyeXia is only the threat to subject a man to the 5o/a/xa<ria: hence the expression eirayye\\ew §oK.ijj.a,ffia.v. (Schomann, De Comii. p. 232. note 8. transl.) Other writers, such as Har­pocration and Suidas, do not sufficiently distinguish between eTrccyyeAta and ej/§ei|(s : the latter is an accusation against persons who, .though they had been declared ftrijuot, nevertheless ventured to assume the rights of citizens in the public assem­bly ; whereas e'TrayyeAia applied only to those who had not yet been convicted of the crime laid to their charge, but were only threatened with an ac­cusation for the first time. (Meier, Att. Proc. p. 210 ; Schomann, De Comit. p. 232, note 7. transl.) Wachsmuth (Hellen. Altertlmmsk^ vol. ii. p. 236, 2d edit.) seems to be inclined to consider the ptjto/h/c^ ypa^r; to be connected or identical with the eirayyeAta, but the former, according to the definitions of Photius and Suidas, was in reality quite a different thing, inasmuch as it was intended to prevent orators from saying or doing unlawful things in the assembly where they had a right to come forward; whereas the eTrayyeAia was a de­nunciation, or a promise to prove that the orator had no right at all to speak in the assembly. [L. S.]

EPARITI (e7rapiTO(),the name of the standing army in Arcadia, which was formed to preserve the independence of the Arcadian towns, when they became united as one state after the defeat of the Spartans at Leuctra. They were 5000 in number, and were paid by the state. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 34, vii. 5. § 3 ; Diod. xv. 62, 67 ; Hesych. .s. v. GTTopofjroi • Bejot, in M&m, de VAcad. des Inscrip. xxxii. p. 234 ; Kellermann, De Re Militari Arcadum, p. 44 ; Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterthumsk. vol. i. p. 283, 2d ed.)

EPAULIA. [matrimonium.]

EPECJNACTAE (eVeuw/mu), a class of citizens at Sparta who are said to have been the offspring of slaves and the widows of Spartan citizens. Theopompus tells us (Athen. vii. p. 273, d) that in the Messenian war, in consequence of the great losses- which the Spartans sustained, they married the widows of those who were slain

EPHEBUS.

to helots, and that these helots were admitted to the citizenship under the name of anewa/crat. Diodorus (Mai, Eacc. Vat. p. 10) also calls the par­tisans of Phalanthus eirevvaKrai. [partheniae.] (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 353 ; Miiller. Dor. iii. 3. § 5.)

EPHEBEUM. [gymnasium.]

EPHEBUS (e^Sos), the name of an Athenian youth after he had attained the age of 18. (Pollux-, viii. 105 ; Harpocrat. s. v. 'E-jnSteres 'Hg^ffou). The state of etyygeia lasted for two years, till the young men had attained the age of 20, when they became men, and were admitted to share all the rights and duties of a citizen, for which the law did not proscribe a more advanced age. That the young men, when they became e^Tjgoj, did not re­ceive all the privileges of full citizens, is admitted on all hands ; but from the assertion of Pollux and Harpocration, who state that their names were not entered in the lexiarchic registers until they had completed their 20th year, that is to say, until they had gone through the period of ec^geia, it would seem that they were not looked upon as citizens as long as they were e<£?7§oi, and that consequently they enjoyed none of the privileges of full citizens. But we have sufficient ground for believing, that the names of young men at the time they became ec^Tjgof, were entered as citizens in the lexiarchic registers, for Lycurgus (c. Leoerat. p. 189) uses the expressions e<£7]£oz/yiyve(r0cuand els to \f)J-iapxiKov ypaupareiov eyypd<pecr6ai. as synonymous. The statement of Harpocration and Photius is therefore probably nothing but a false inference from the fact, that young men before the completion of their 20th year were not allowed to take an active part in the public assembly ; or it may be, that it arose out of the law which, as Schomann (De Comit, p, 7J, transl.) interprets it, prescribed that no Athenian should be enrolled in the lexiarchic registers before the attainment of the 18th, or after the completion of the 20th year [docimasia.] From the oration of Demosthenes against Aphobus (p. 814, &c. ; compare c. Onetor. p. 868), we see that some of the privileges of citizens were conferred upon young men on becoming etyygot: Demosthenes himself, at the age of 18, entered upon his patrimony, and brought an action against his guardians ; one Man-titheus (Demosth. c. Boeot. De Dote, p. 1009) re­lates that he married at the age of 18 ; and these facts are stated in such a manner that we must infer that their occurrence had nothing extra­ordinary, but were in accordance with the usual custom.

Before a youth was enrolled among the ephebi, he had to undergo a SoKi/jLaffia, the object of which was partly to ascertain whether he was the son of Athenian citizens, or adopted by a citizen, and partly whether his body was sufficiently developed and strong to undertake the duties which now de­volved upon him. (Aristoph. Vesp. 533, with the Schol. ; Demosth. c. Onetor. p. 868 ; Xen. De Rep. Ath. c, 3. § 4; Plato, Crito, p. 51, with Stall-baum's note p. 174. Eng. transl.) Schomann (I.e.} believes that this So/a/mcria only applied to orphans, but Aristophanes and Plato mention it in such a general way, that there seems to be no ground for such a supposition. After the 8o/a//a<r£a the young men received in the assembly a shield and a lance (Aristot. ap. Harpocrat. s. v. Ao/a/xacrfa) ; but those whose fathers had fallen in the defence of their country, received a complete suit of armour

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