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442

ECCLESIA.

traitorously plotted its overthrow, or received bribes for misleading and deceiving the people. (Aristoph. Thesm. 330.) On the conclusion of this prayer business began, and the first subject proposed was said to be brought forward, irp&Tov /xera to, iepd. (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 706.) We must, however, un­derstand that it was illegal to propose to the ecclesia any particular measure unless it had previously re­ceived the sanction "of the senate, or been formally referred by that body to the people, under the title of a irpo€ov\ev/j.a. The assembly, nevertheless, had the power of altering a previous decree of the senate as might seem fit. Further information on this point will be found under boule, to which we may add, according to Schomann (De Comitiis, c. 9), that the object of the law, mentioned by the gram­marians ('AirpoSofaevTov ntfitv ^•fi^iff/JLa eiarievai eV ro> 2%t&L>), seems to have been, not to provide that no motion should be proposed in the assembly unless previously approved of by the senate, but rather that no subject should be presented for dis­cussion to the people, about which a bill of the senate had not been drawn up and read in the as­sembly.

The privilege of addressing the assembly was not confined to any class or age amongst those who had the right to be present: all, without any dis­tinction, were invited to do so by the proclamation (Tis ayopevew /3ouAerou) which was made by the crier after the proedri had gone through the neces­sary preliminaries, and laid the subject of discus­sion before the meeting ; for though, according to the institutions of Solon, those persons who were above fifty years of age ought to have been called upon to speak first (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 54), this regulation had in the days of Aristophanes become quite obsolete. (Dem. De Cor. p. 285 ; Aristoph. AcJiarn. 43.) The speakers are sometimes simply called of TrapiofTes, and appear to have worn a crown of myrtle on their heads while addressing the as­sembly, to intimate, perhaps, that they were then representatives of the people, and like the archons when crowned, inviolable. (Aristoph. Ecdes. 130, 147.) They were by an old law required to con­fine themselves to the subject before the meeting, and keep themselves to the discussion of one thing at a time, and forbidden to indulge in scurrilous or abusive language: the law, however, had in the time of Aristophanes become neglected and almost forgotten. (Aesch. c. Timar. p. 5 ; Aristoph. Ecdes. 142.) The most influential and practised speakers of the assembly were generally distin­guished by the name of /gropes.

After the speakers had concluded, any one was at liberty to propose a decree, whether drawn up beforehand or framed in the meeting (3Ev tc? S^fip ffvyypdfyeaOai., Plat. Gorg. p. 451), which, how­ever, it was necessary to present to the proedri, that they might see, in conjunction with the vqu.o-<£>uAa/ces, whether there was contained in it any­thing injurious to the state, or contrary to the existing laws. (Pollux, viii. 94.) If not, it was read by the crier ; though, even after the reading, the chairman could prevent it being put to the vote, unless his opposition was overborne by threats and clamours. (Aesch. De Fats. Leg. p. 39.) Private individuals also could do the same, by engaging upon oath (uTroj^aotTia) to bring against' the author of any measure they might object to, an accusation railed a ypafy'h Trapavopow. If, however, the chair­man refused to submit any question to the decision

ECCLESIA.

of the people, he might be proceeded against by endeixis (Plat. Apol. p. 32) ; and if he allowed the people to vote upon a proposal which was contrary to existing constitutional laws, he was in some cases liable to atimia. (Dem. c. Timoc. p. 716.) If, on the contrary, no opposition of this sort was offered to a proposed decree, the votes of the people were taken, by the permission of the chairman and with the consent of the rest of the proedri: whence the permission is said to have been given sometimes by the proedri and sometime! by the chairman, who is also simply called 6 TrpdeSpos, just as the proedri are sometimes styled prytanes. (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 64 ; Dem. c.Meid.^. 517.) The de­cision of the people was given either by show of hands, or by ballot, i.e. by casting pebbles into urns (fcaSurKOi) ; the former was expressed by the word %€£poTove?y, the latter by i|/7]<|>i£ecr0cu, al­though the two terms are frequently confounded. The more usual method of voting was by show of hands, as being more expeditious and convenient (X*ipoTovia). The process was as follows : — the crier first proclaimed that all those who were in favour of a proposed measure should hold up their hands (ftrtp 5o«e? k. r. A. aparco tt?i/ xe*Pa) • then he proclaimed that all those who were opposed to it should do the same (frrcjj p.7] SoKet k. r. A.): they did so, and the crier then formed as accurate an idea as possible of the numbers for and against (ilpiQ^i ras xe?pas), and the chairman of the meeting pronounced the opinion of the majorit}'. (Suidas, s. v. KaTe%ap0Toj>7?<rej>.) In this way most matters of public interest were determined. Vote by ballot (/cpu§§i7f), on the other hand, was only used in a few special cases determined by law ; as, for instance, when a proposition was made for allowing those who had suffered atimia to appeal to the people for restitution of their former rights ; or for inflicting extraordinary punishments on atro­cious offenders, and generally, upon any matter which affected private persons. (Dem. c. Timocr. pp. 715, 719.) In cases of this sort it was settled by law, that a decree should not be valid unless six thousand citizens at least voted in favour of it. This was by far the majority of those citizens who were in the habit of attending ; for, in time of war the number never amounted to five thousand, and in time of peace seldom to ten thousand. (Time, vii. 72.)

With respect to the actual mode of voting by ballot in the ecclesia we have no certain informa­tion ; but it was probably the same as in the courts of law, namely, by means of black and white peb­bles, or shells, put into urns (KadiffKoi) ; the white for adoption, the black for rejection of any given measure. (Schol. ad Arist. Vesp. 981).

The determination or decree of the people was called a PsepMsma (^(jfuoyxa), which properly signifies a law proposed to an assembly, and ap­proved of by the people. The form for drawing up the Psephisma varied in differentages. [BouLE.]

We now come to the dismissal of the assembly ; the order for which, when business was over, was given by the prytanes (tXvffav rV e'ftr/cA^cr/ay), through the proclamation of the crier to the people (Aristoph. Acharn. 173) ; and as it was not cus­tomary to continue meetings which usually began early in the morning (Id. 20) till after sunset, if one day were not sufficient for the completion of any business, it was adjourned to the next. But an assembly was sometimes broken up if any one,

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