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ECCLESIA.

it by a public proclamation; for as Ulpian (ad Demosth. de Fals. Leg. p. 100, a) observes, these assemblies were called crvyK\rjToi, because the people were summoned to them by officers sent round for that purpose (fin owe/caAouy rwts irepilovTts). But independent of the right which we have said the strategi possessed of convening an extraordinary meeting, it would seem from the case of Pericles (Thucyd. ii. 22) that a strategus had the power of preventing. any assembly being called. It is, however, important to observe, that such an exercise of power would perhaps not have been tolerated except during wars and commotions, or in the person of a distinguished character like Pericles ; and that under different circumstances, at any rate after the time of Solon, the assemblies were always called by the prytanes. All persons who did not obey the call were subject to a fine, and six magistrates called lexiarchs (\r)!-iapxoi) were appointed, whose duty it was to take care that the people attended the meetings, and to levy fines on those who refused to do so. (Pollux, viii. 104.) With a view to this, whenever an assembly was to be held, certain public slaves (^KvBai or To^orai) were sent round to sweep the agora, and other places of public resort, with a rope coloured with vermilion. The different persons whom these ropemen met, were driven by them towards the ecclesia, and those who refused to go were marked by the rope and fined. (Schol. ad Arist. AcJiar. 22.) Aristophanes (I. c.) alludes to this subject in the lines

oi S'eV ayopq, \a\oCcrt, K&v<a Kal Kara> <f)€vyov<ri rb ju,eju,tA.T«j«,€Voj/.

Besides this, all the roads except those which led to the meeting were blocked up with hurdles (7eppa), which were also used to fence in the place of assembly against the intrusion of persons who had no right to be present : their removal in the latter case seems to have served as a signal for the admission of strangers who might wish to ap­peal to the people. (Dem. c. Neaer. p. 1375.) An additional inducement to attend, with the poorer classes, was the ptffQbs €KK\f]ffia(rriK6sy or pay which they received for it. The originator of this practice seems to have been a person named Callistratus, who introduced it " long after the beginning of the influence of Pericles." The payment itself, originally an obolus, was after­wards raised to three by a popular favourite called Agyrrhius, of Collytus. The increase took place but a short time before the Ecclesiazusae of Aris­tophanes came out, or about b. c. 392. A ticket ((tvu.€o\ojs) appears to have been given to those who attended, on producing which, at the close of the proceedings, they received the money from one of the thesmothetae. (Aristoph. Eccles. 295, 380.) This payment, however, was not made to the richer classes, who attended the assemblies gratis, and are therefore called oiK6airoi €KKK7](riaffTai by the poet Antiphanes in a fragment preserved by Athenaeus (vi. p. 247, f). The same word oiK6ariTos is applied generally to a person who re­ceives no pay for his services.

With respect to the right of attending, we may observe that it was enjoyed by all legitimate citi-sens who were of the proper age (generally sup­posed to be twenty, certainly not less than eigh­teen), and not labouring under any atimia or loss of civil rights. All were considered citizens,

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ECCLESIA.

whose parents were both such, or who had been presented with the freedom of the state, and en­rolled in the register of some demus or parish. (Dem. c. Neaer. p. 1380.) Adopted citizens, how­ever (iroi7]Toi), were not qualified to hold the office of archon or any priesthood. (Id. p. 1376.) De­crepit old men (yepovrts ol a<f>etfjL€i/oi, perhaps those above sixty) seem not to have been admitted, although it is not expressly so stated. (Aristot. Polit. i\\. 1.) Slaves and foreigners also were cer­tainly excluded (Aristoph. Thesm. 294) : though occasions would of course occur when it would be necessary or desirable to admit them ; and from Demosthenes (c. Neaer. p. 1375) we may infer that it was not unusual to allow foreigners to enter to­wards the close of the proceedings, when the most important business of the day had been concluded; otherwise they stood outside. (Aesch. c. Ctes. p. 86.) ^

The Jo-oreAeTs, or foreigners, who enjoyed nearly equal privileges with the citizens, are by some thought to have had the same rights as adopted citizens, with respect to voting in the assembly. (Wolf, ad Dem. Lept. p. 70.) This, however, seems very doubtful ; at any rate the etymology of the word i(TOTG\eis does not justify such an opinion.

In the article boule it is explained who the prytanes and the proedri were ; and we may here remark, that it was the duty of the proedri of the same tribe, under the presidency of their chairman (6 e7ricrTaT7?s), to lay before the people the subjects to be discussed ; to read, or cause to be read, the previous bill (rb irpogotfAcv/m) of the senate j and to give permission1 (yv(afjt.as irpoTiOtvai) to the speakers to address the people. They most pro­bably sat on the steps near the bema, to which they were on some occasions called by the people. In later times they were assisted in keeping order (euKOfTjtua) by the members of the presiding tribe (tj 7rpo€8/>ei5ou(ra $u\t], Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 53, and boule) ; and the officers who acted under them, the " serjeants-at-arms " were the crier (6 K7]pu|), and the Scythian bowmen. Thus, in Aristophanes (Acharn. 24), the crier says to a speaker, who was out of order, KdOijcro crTya, and in another passage the Toj-6rat are represented as dragging a drunken man out of the assembly. (Eccles. 143.) When the discussion upon any sub­ject had terminated, the chairman of the proedri, if he thought proper, put the question to the vote: we read in some instances of his refusing to do so. (Xen. Mem. i. 1. § 18 ; Thuc. vi. 14.)

Previous, however, to the commencement of any business, it was usual to make a lustra­tion or purification of the place where the as­sembly was held. This was performed by an officiating priest called the Peristiarchus (jrepHrTiap-X°s), a name given to him because he Avent before the lustral victims (ra Treptffna) as they were carried round the boundary of the place. The favourite victims were sucking pigs (%o*pi5ia) : the blood of which was sprinkled about the seats, and their bodies afterwards thrown into the sea. (Schol. ad Aristoph. I.e., ad Aesch. c. Timar. p. 48.) After the peristiarch the crier followed, burning incense in a censer. When these cere­monies were concluded, the crier proclaimed silence, and then offered up a prayer, in which the gods were implored to bless the proceedings of the meet­ing, and bring down destruction on all those who were hostilely disposed towards the state, or who

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