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440

ECCLESIA,

being to call from the country into the city. The ordinary assemblies were called v6fj.iii.oi or Kvpiai, according to the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Achar. 19), who, moreover, informs us that there were three such in every month. But according to the best-informed grammarians who followed Aristotle, the name Kvpia was appropriated to the first only of the regular assemblies of each prytany. Such, at least, is the account given by Pollux (viii. 96) and Harpocration, the former of whom asserts that the third of the regular assemblies in each prytany was partly devoted to the reception of ambassadors from foreign states.

Aristophanes, however, in the Acharnians (61), represents ambassadors who had just returned from Persia and Thrace, as giving an account of their embassy in a Kvpia eK/cA-T/tria, which, ac­cording to Pollux, would be not the third but the first of the regular assemblies. With a view of reconciling these discrepancies, Schomann (De Comit. c. i.) supposes, that Solon originally ap­pointed one regular assembly, called Kupicc, to be held on a certain day of every prytany, and that afterwards additional assemblies were instituted, appropriated respectively to particular purposes, though the term Kvpia was still reserved for the assembly formerly so called. If, however, the re­presentation of Aristophanes is in agreement with the practice of his age, we must further suppose, what is very probable, that the arrangements for business, as described by Pollux, were not always observed even in the time of the poet; and since a few years after Aristotle's time many changes took place in the constitution oS Athens, it may have happened that the name of Kvpia was then given to all the regular assemblies, in which case the Scholiast probably identified the customs and terms of a late age with those of an earlier period. Moreover, the number of prytanies in each year, originally ten, one for each tribe, was, on the in­crease in the number of the tribes at Athens, raised to twelve ; so that the prytanies would then coincide with the months of the year, a fact which, taken in conjunction with other circum­stances (Schomann, ii. 44), seems to show, that the authorities who speak of three regular as­semblies in each month, had in view the times Avhen a prytany and a month were the same thing. Some authors have endeavoured to determine the particular days on which the four regular assem­blies of each prytany were held, but Schomann (ii. 47) has proved almost to demonstration, that there were no invariably fixed days of assembly ; and at any rate, even if there were, we have not suffi­cient data to determine them. Ulpian (ad De-mosth. Timoo. p. 706) says, in allusion to the times when there were three assemblies in every month, that one was held on the eleventh, another about the twentieth, a third about the thirtieth of each month \ and it is of course not impro­bable that they were always held at nearly equal intervals.

The place in which the assemblies were anciently held was, we are told by Harpocration (s. v. ndvS7jfj.os 'A0po8/T77), the ayopd. Afterwards they were transferred to the Pnyx, and at last to the great theatre of Dionysus, and other places. Thus Thucydides (viii. 97) speaks of the people being summoned to the Pnyx, the usual place of assembly in his times ; and Aristophanes (Equit. 42), in describing <v Demus," the representative of the

ECGLESIA.

Athenian people, just as " John Bull" is of the English, calls that character A'fjfj.os HvKvirris, or Demus of the (parish of) Pnyx: a joke by which that place is represented as the home of the Athenians. The situation of it was to the west of the Areiopagus, on a slope connected with Mount Lycabettus, and partly at least within the walls of the city. It was semicircular in form, with a boundary wall, part rock and part masonry, and an area of about 12,000 square yards. On the north the ground was filled up and paved witli large stones, so as to get a level surface on the slope ; from which fact some grammarians derive its name (napa. rrjv r&v Xi6<av irvKVor^Ta). To­wards this side, and close to the wall, was the bema (/S^a), a stone platform or hustings ten or eleven feet high, with an ascent of steps ; it was cut out of the solid rock, whence it is sometimes called b Ai0os, as in Aristophanes (Poo?, 680) we read 'terns Kparet vvv rov \l6ov to?>v Trj u.vkvi. The position of the bema, was such as to command a view of the sea from behind (on which account the thirty tyrants are said to have altered it), and of the TlpoirvXaia, and Parthenon in front, though the hill of the Aeiopagus lay partly be­tween it and the Acropolis. Hence Demosthenes (Ilepl 2wTa£. 174), when reminding the Athenians from this very bema of the other splendid works of their ancestors, says emphatically UpoTvvXaia. ravra; and we may be sure that the Athenian orators would often rouse the national feelings of their hearers by pointing to the assemblage of magnificent edifices, " monuments of Athenian gratitude and glory," which they had in view from the Pnyx. (Cramer, Ancient Greece, vol. ii. p. 335 ; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica. In the latter of these works are two views of the re­mains of the Pnyx.) That the general situation of the place was elevated is clear from the phrase avaSaiveiv ets ttjj/ e/c/cA.ijo'icw, and the words ttus 6 firj/Aos avw /caflrjTo, applied to a meeting of the people in the Pnyx. (Dem. De Cor. p. 285.) After the great theatre of Dionysus was built, the assemblies were frequently held in it, as it afforded spat-^ and convenience for a large multitude ; and m^ sonie particular cases it was specially deter­mined by law that the people should assemble there. (Dem. c. Meld. p. 517.) Assemblies were also held in the Peiraeeus, and in the theatre at Munychia. (Dem. De Fals. Leg. p. 359 ; Lysias, c. Affor. p. 133 ; Thucyd. viii. 93.)

The ^ right of convening the people generally vested in the prytanes or presidents of the council of Five Hundred [boule] ; but in cases of sud­den emergency, and especially during wars, the strategi also had the power of calling extraordi­nary meetings, for which, however, if we may judge by the form in which several decrees are drawn up, the consent of the senate appears to have been necessary. (Dem. De Cor. p. 249.) The four ordinary meetings of every prytany were, nevertheless, always convened by the pry­tanes, who not only gave a previous notice (irpo-ypd(f)€iv rV tttKXiiffiav} of the day of assembly, and published a programme of the subjects to be discussed, but also, as it appears, sent a crier round to collect the citizens (avvdytw tov Sfj^oz/, Pol­lux, viii. 95 ; Harpocrat. s. v. Kvpia 'E/c/cA^o-m ; Dem. c. Aristog. p. 772.) At any rate, whenever the strategi wished to convene one of the extra­ordinary assemblies, notice was certainly given of

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