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find at a later time that the magister equitum had the insignia of a praetor (Dion Cass. xlii. 27). The magister equitum was originally, as his name imports, the commander of the cavalry, while the dictator was at the head of the legions, the in­fantry (Liv. iii. 27), and the relation between them was in this respect similar to that which subsisted between the king and the tribimus celerum.

Dictators were only appointed so long as the Romans had to carry on wars in Italy. A solitary instance occurs in the first Punic war of the nomi­nation of a dictator for the purpose of carrying on war out of Italy (lAv.Epit. 19) ; but this was never repeated, because, as has been already re­marked, it was feared that so great a power might become dangerous at a distance from Rome. But after the battle of Trasimene in b.c. 216, when Home itself was threatened by Hannibal, recourse was again had to a dictator, and Q. Fabius Maxi-mus was appointed to the office. In the next year, b. c. 216, after the battle of Cannae, M. Ju-nius Pera was also nominated dictator, but this was the last time of the appointment of a dictator rei gerundae causa. From that time dictators were, frequently appointed for holding the elections down to b. c. 202, but from that year the dictator­ship disappears altogether. After a lapse of 120 years, Sulla caused himself to be appointed dic­tator in B. c. 82, reipuUicae constiiuendae causa (Veil. Pat. ii. 28), but as Niebuhr remarks, " the title was a mere name, without any ground for such a use in the ancient constitution." Neither the magistrate (interrex) who nominated him, nor the time for which he was appointed, nor the ex­tent nor exercise of his power, was in accordance with the ancient laws and precedents ; and the same was the case with the dictatorship of Caesar. Soon after Caesar's death the dictatorship was abolished for ever by a lex proposed by the consul Antonius (Cic. Phil. i. 1 ; Liv. Epii. 116 ; Dion Cass. xliv. 51). The title indeed was offered to Augustus, but he resolutely refused it in conse­quence of the odium attached to it from the tyranny of Sulla when dictator (Suet. Aug. 52).

During the time, however, that the dictatorship was in abeyance, a substitute was invented for it, whenever the circumstances of the republic re­quired the adoption of extraordinary measures, by the senate investing the consuls with dictatorial power. This was done by the well-known formula, Videant or dent operam consules., ne quid respublica detrimenti capiat. (Comp. Sail. Catil. 29.)

(The preceding account has been mostly taken from Beeker, Handbucli der Rwnisclien Alter-tliumer, vol. ii. part ii. p. 150, &c.; comp. Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 563, &c.; Gottling, Ges-cliichte der Komisch. Staatsverfassung, p. 279, &c.)

DICTYNNIA (&ktjw/o), a festival with sacrifices, celebrated at Cydonia in Crete, in honour of Artemis, surnamed AtKrvwa or A*/cTiWaia, from Sf/cTwoy, a hunter's net. (Diodor. Sic. v. 76 ; compare Strabo x. p. 479 ;. Pausan. ii. 30. §3.) Particulars respecting its celebration are not known. Artemis mktvvvo, was also worshipped at Sparta (Paus. iii. 12. § 7), and at Ambrysus in Phocis. (Paus. x. 36. § 3 ; compare the Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 1284, Vesp. 357; and Meursius, Creta, c. 3.) . [L. S.J

DIES (of the same root as 8i6s and deus, Butt-n, Mythol. ii. p. 74). The name dies was ap-


plied, like our word day, to the time during whicli, according to the notions of the ancients, the sun performed his course round the earth, and this time they called the civil day (dies civilis, in Greek i/u%(?4u6|0oi/, because it included both night and day. See Censorin. DeDie Nat. 23 ; Plin. H. N. ii. 77, 79 ; Varro, De Re Rust. i. 28 ; Macrob. &rf.

1. 3). The natural day (dies naturalis), or the time from the rising to the setting of the sun, was likewise designated by the name dies. The civil day began with the Greeks at the setting of the sun, and with the Romans at midnight ; with the Babylonians at the rising of the sun, and with the Umbrlans at midday. (Macrob. L c. ; Gellius, iii.

2.) We have here only to consider the natural day, and as its subdivisions were different at dif-

«/ ?

ferent times, and not always the same among the Greeks as among the Romans, we shall endeavour to give a brief account of the various parts into which it was divided by the Greeks at the diffe­rent periods of their history, and then proceed to consider its divisions among the Romans, to which will be subjoined a short list of remarkable days.

At the time of the Homeric poems, the natural day was divided into three parts (II. xxi. 111). The first, called rjcus, began with sunrise, and com­prehended the whole space of time during which light seemed to be increasing, i. e. till midday. (//. viii. 66, ix, 84, Od. ix. 56.) Some ancient gram­marians have supposed that in some instances Homer used the word i](*>s for the whole day, hut Nitzsch (Anmerkungen zur Odyssee, i. 125) has shown the incorrectness of this opinion. The second part was called peffov fipap or midday, dur­ing which the sun was thought to stand still. (Plerraias, ad Plat. Pliaedr. p. 342.) The third part bore the name of SeiAT? or SdeAoj/ tf/jiap (Od. xvii. 606 ; compare Buttmann's Leocilog. ii. n. 95), which derived its name from the increased warmth of the atmosphere. The last part of the SeiA.?; was sometimes designated by the words irori ecrirepav or jSovAu-nis (Od. xvii. 191, II. xvi. 779). Besides these three great divisions no others seem to have been known at the time when the Homeric poems 'were composed. The chief information respecting the divisions of the day in the period after Homer, and more especially the divisions made by the Athenians, is to be derived from Pollux (Onom. i. 68). The first and last of the divisions made at the time of Homer were afterwards subdivided into two parts. The earlier part of the morning was termed Trpcot" or irpk ttjs ^juepas : the later, TrA^oucrrjs rrjs ayopas^ or trepl TrX^Oovffav ayopav (Herod, iv. 181 ; Xen. Memorab. i. 1. § 10, Hellen. i. 1. § 30 ; Dion Chrysost. Or at. Ixvii). The /xecroj/ 'ft/tap of Homer was afterwards expres­sed by pea-iifAGpia, \Leffov rjf^epa^ or pso"*] fjfiepa, and comprehended, as before, the middle of the day, when the sun seemed neither to rise nor to decline. The two parts of the afternoon were called SefATj Trpco'nj or Trpca'i'a, and SetA?? o^/'itj or tyia (Herod, vii. 167, viii. 6 ; Thucyd. iii. 74, viii. 26 ; com­pare Libanius, Epist. 1084). This division con­tinued to be observed down to the latest period of Grecian history, though another more accurate division, and more adapted to the purposes of com­mon life, was introduced at an early period ; for Aiiaximander, or according to others, his disciple Anaxmienes, is said to have made the Greeks ac­quainted with the use of the Babylonian chrono­meter or sun-dial (called irfaos or w/Jo

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