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forth and covered the altar. The scourging itself

•was preceded by a preparation, by which those

•who intended to undergo the diamastigosis tried to harden themselves against its pains. Pausanias describes the origin of the worship of Artemis Orthia, and of the diamastigosis, in the following manner : — A wooden statue of Artemis, which Orestes had brought from Tauris, was found in a bush by Astrabacus and Alopecus, the sons of Irbus. The two men were immediately struck mad at the sight of it. The Limnaeans and the inhabitants of other neighbouring places then of­fered sacrifices to the goddess ; but a quarrel en­sued among them, in which several individuals were killed at the altar of Artemis, who now demanded atonement for the pollution of her sanctuary. From henceforth human victims were selected by lot and offered to Artemis, until Lycurgus introduced the scourging of young men at her altar as a substitute for human sacrifices.

The diamastigosis, according to this account, was a substitute for human sacrifice, and Lycurgus made it also serve his purposes of education, in so far as he made it a part of the system of harden­ing the Spartan youths against bodily sufferings. (Plut. Lye. 18, Instit. Laced, p. 254; Cic. Tuscul. v. 27.) According to another far less probable ac­count, the diamastigosis originated in a circum­stance, recorded by Plutarch (Aristid. 17), which happened before the battle of Plataeae.

The worship of Artemis Orthia was unquestion­ ably very ancient, and the diamastigosis only a step from barbarism towards civilisation. Many anec­ dotes are related of the courage and intrepidity with which young Spartans bore the lashes of the scourge ; some even died without uttering a murmur at their sufferings, for to die under the strokes was considered as honourable a death as that on the field of battle. (Compare Mutter's .Do?', ii. 9. § 6. note &, and iv. 5. § 8., note c.; Manso, Sparta, i. 2. p. 183.) [L.S.]

DIANOMAE (5taw>/iaO or DIA'DOSEIS (5ia5ocT€is) were public donations to the Athenian people, which corresponded to the Roman congiaria. [CONGIARIUM.] To these belong the free distri­butions of corn (Aristoph. Vesp. 715), the cleru-chiae [colonia (Greek)], the revenues from the mines, and the money of the theorica. [theo-ricon.]

DIAPSEPHISIS (SiaMQiffis), a political in­stitution at Athens, the object of which was to pre­vent aliens, or such as were the offspring of an unlawful marriage, from assuming the rights of citizens. As usurpations of this kind were not uncommon at Athens (Plut. Pericl. 37; Plarpocr. s. v. Trora^s), various measures had been adopted against them (ypa<pal ^zvias and 5wpo£ev/as); but as none of them had the desired effect, a new me­thod, the dla^ytyicris was devised, according to which the trial on spurious citizens was to bo held by the demotae, within whose deme intruders were suspected to exist; for if each deme separately was kept clear of intruders, the whole body of citizens .would naturally feel the benefit. Every deme therefore obtained the light or duty at certain times to revise its lexiarchic registers, and to ascer­tain whether any had entered their names who had no claims to the rights of citizens. The assembly of the demotae, in which these investigations took place, was held under the presidency of the de-march. or some senator belonging to the deme

(Harpocr. s. v. ^f^apxos') ; for in the case brought forward in the oration of Demosthenes against Eubulides, we do not find that he was dernarch, but it is merely stated that he was a member of the /3ouA.77. When the demotae were assembled, an oath was administered to them, in which they promised to judge impartially, without favour to-" wards, or enmity against, those persons on whom they might have to pass sentence. The president then read the names of the demotae from the re­gister, asking the opinion of the assembly (SicnJ/1?-(pifeffOcu) respecting each individual, whether they thought him a true and legitimate citizen or not. Any one then had the right to say what he thought or knew of the person in question ; and when any one was impeached, a regular trial took place. (Dem. c. Euhd. p. 1302; Aeschin. De Fals. Leg. p. 345.) Pollux (viii. 18) says that the demotae on this occasion gave their votes with leaves and not with pebbles as was usual, but De­mosthenes simply calls them tyrjtyoi. If a person was found guilty of having usurped the rights of a citizen (airoifyfifyifecrOai'), his name was struck from the lexiarchic register, and he himself was de­graded to the rank of an alien. But if he did not acquiesce in the verdict, but appealed to the great courts of justice, at Athens, a heavier punishment awaited him, if he was found guilty there also ; for he was then sold as a slave, and his property was confiscated by the state. (Dionj^s. Hal. de Isaeo, c. 16. p. 6175 ed. Reiske ; Argument, ad Demosth. c.

If by any accident the lexiarchic registers had been lost or destroyed, a careful scrutiny of the same nature as that described above, and likewise called Stafy'fjtyio'is, took place, in order to prevent any spurious citizen from having his name entered in the new registers. (Dem. I. c. p. 1306.)

It is commonly believed that the diafyrityi.o'i.s was introduced at Athens in b. c. 419, by one Demo- philus. (Schomami, De ComitUs, p. 358, transl. ; Wachsmuth, Plellen. Alteritmmsk. vol. i. p. 549, 2nd ed.) But it has justly been remarked by Siebelis on Philochorus (Fragm. p. 61), that Plarpocration (s. v. ^ia^^icrts'), the apparent au­ thority for this supposition, cannot be interpreted in this sense. One Siaty'hfyta'is is mentioned by Plutarch (Pericl. 37) as early as b. c. 445. Clin­ ton (F. II. ii. p. 141) has, moreover, shown that the §ia$7i(f)icri$ mentioned by Plarpocration, in the archonship of Archias, does not belong to b. c. 419, but to b.c. 34-7. Compare Hermann, Manual of the Pol. Ant. of Greece, § 123. n. 14, &c. ; and Scho- mann, /. c., whose lengthened account, however, should be read with great care, as he makes some statements which seem to be irreconcilable with each other, and not founded on good authority. The source from which we derive most information on this subject is the oration of Demosthenes against Eubulides. [L. S.]

• DIA'RIUM. [servus.]

DIASI A (SiacTia), a great festival celebrated at Athens, without the walls of the city (e|o> TroAews), in honour of Zeus, surname d (Thuc. i. 126). The whole people took part in it, and the wealthier citizens offered victims (tepeta), while the poorer classes burnt such incense as their country furnished (dv/jLara eV(%d;/?m), which the scholiast on Thucydides erroneously explains aa cakes in the shape of animals. (Compare Xen. Anal, vii. o. § 4; Luciau Tim. 7; Aristopli,

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