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the meaning which it always bears in the-earlier j medical writers, and that which will be adhered to in the present article ; in some of the later authors, it seems to comprehend Celsus's second grand division, Pharmaceutica, and is used by Scribonius Largus (De Compos. Medicam. § 200) simply in opposition to cliirurgia, so as to answer exactly to the province of our physician.
No attention seems to have been paid to this branch of medicine before the date of Hippocrates. Homer represents Machaon, who had been wounded in the shoulder by an arrow (II. xi. 507) and forced to quit the field, as taking a draught composed of wine, goat's-milk cheese, and flour (ibid. 638), which certainly no modern surgeon would prescribe in such a case. (See Plat. De Republ. iii. pp. 405, 406 ; Max. Tyr. Serm. 29 ; Athen. i. p. 10.) Hippocrates seems, to claim for himself the credit of being the first person who had studied this subject, and says that " the ancients had written nothing on it worth mentioning" (De Rat. Vici. in Morb. Acut. vol. ii. p. 26, ed. Kiihn). Among the works commonly ascribed to Hippocrates, there are four that bear upon this subject. It would be out of place here to attempt any thing like a complete account of the opinions of the ancients on this point; those who wish for more detailed information must be referred to the different works on medical antiquities, while in this article mention is made of only such particulars as may be supposed to have some interest for the general reader.
In the works of Hippocrates and his successors almost all the articles of food used by the ancients, are mentioned, and their real or supposed properties discussed, sometimes quite as fancifully as by Burton in his Anatomy of Melancholy. In some respects they appear to have been much less delicate in their tastes than the moderns, as we find the flesh of the fox, the dog, the horse, and the ass spoken of as common articles of food. (Pseudo-Hippocr. De Vict. Rat. lib. ii. vol. i. pp. 679, 680.) With regard to the quantity of wine drank by the ancients, we may arrive at something like certainty from the fact that Gael ins Aurelianus mentions it as something extraordinary that the famous Asclepiades at Rome in the first century b. c., sometimes ordered his patients to double and treble the quantity of wine, till at last they drank half wine and half water (De Morb. Chron. lib. iii. c. 7. p. 386), from which it appears that wine was commonly diluted with five or six times its quantity of water. Hippocrates recommends wine to be mixed with an equal quantity of water, and Galen approves of the proportion ; but Le Clerc (Hist, de la Mid.} thinks that this was only in particular cases. In one place (Pseudo-Hippocr. De Vict. Rat. lib. iii. in fin.) the patient, after great fatigue, is recommended psOvcrOrivai a?ra| 7) 8is, in which passage it has been much doubted whether actual intoxication is meant, or only the " drinking freely and to cheerfulness," in which sense the same word is used by St. John (ii. 10) and the LXX. (Gen. xliii. 34 ; Cant. v. 1 ; and perhaps Gen. ix. 21). According to Hippocrates, the proportions in which wine and water should be mixed together, vary according to the season of the year ; for instance, in summer the wine should be most diluted, and in winter the least so. (Compare Celsus, De Medic, i. 3. p. 31. ed, Argent.) Exercise of various sorts, and bath-
i-ng, are also much insisted upon by the writer.? on didt and regimen ; but for further particulars on these subjects the articles balneae and gymnasium must be consulted. It may, however, be added that the bath could not have been very common, at least in private families, in the time of Hippocrates, as he says (De Rat. Vict. in Morb, Acut. p. 62) that " there are few houses in which the necessary conveniences are to be found."
Another very favourite practice with the ancients, both as a preventive of sickness and as a remedy, was the taking of an emetic from time to time. The author of the treatise De Victus 7?a-tione, falsely attributed to Hippocrates, recommends it two or three times a month (lib. iii. p. 710). Celsus considers it more beneficial in the winter than in the summer (De Medic, i. 3. p. 28), and says that those who take an emetic twi-ce a month had better do so ^>n two successive days than once a fortnight (Ibid. p. 29). At the time in which Celsus wrote, this practice was so commonly abused, that Asclepiades, in his work De Sanitate Tuenda, rejected the use of emetics altogether, " Offensus," says Celsus (Ibid. p. 27), " eorum consuetudine, qui quotidie ejiciendo vo-rancli facultatem moliuntur." (See also Plm. H. N. xxvi. 8.) It was the custom among the Romans to take an emetic immediately before their meals, in order to prepare themselves to eat more plentifully ; and again soon after, so as to avoid any injury from repletion. Cicero, in his account of the day that Caesar spent with him at his houso in the country (ad Att. xiii. 52), says, " Ac-cubuit, efjieTiitfyi' agebat, itaque et edit et bibit aSe&s et jucimde ;" and this seems to have been considered a sort of compliment paid by Caesar to his host, as it intimated a resolution to pass the day cheerfully, and to eat and drink freely with him. He is represented as having done the same thing when he was entertained by King Deiotarus (Cic. Pro Deiot. c. 7). The glutton Vitellius is said to have preserved his own life by constant emetics, while he destroyed all his companions who did not use the same precaution (Suet. Vitell. c. 13 | Dion Cass. Ixv. 2), so that one of them, who was prevented by illness from dining with him for a few days, said, " I should certainly have been dead if I had not fallen sick." Even women, after bathing before supper, used to drink wine and throw it up again to sharpen their appetite —
[Falerni] " sextarius alter Ducitur ante cibum, rabidam factums orexim."
Juv. Sat. vi. 427, 428.
so that it might truly be said, in the strong lan guage of Seneca (Cons, ad Helv. 9. § 10)," Vomunt, ut eclant ; edunt, ut vomant." (Compare Seneca, De Provid. c. 4. § 11, Epist. 95. § 21.) By some, the practice was thought so effectual for strengthening the constitution, that it was the constant regimen of all the athletae, or professed wrestlers, trained for the public shows, in order to make them more robust. Celsus, however, (/. c. p. 28), warns his readers against the too frequent use of emetics without necessity and merely for luxury and gluttony, and says that no one who has any regard for his health, and wishes to live to old age, ought to make it a daily practice. [W. A. G.]
DIAETETAE (Sicuriiral), arbitrators, umpires. The diaetetae mentioned by the Athenian