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applied to the purposes of war. Livy mentions a troop of horse in the Numidian army, in which each soldier was supplied with a couple of horses > and in the heat of battle, and when clad in ar mour, would leap with the greatest ease and cele rity from that which was wearied or disabled upon the back of the horse which was still sound and fresh, (xxiii. 29). The Scythians, Armenians, and some of the Indians, were skilled in the same art. The annexed woodcut shows three figures of desultores, one from a bronze lamp, published by Bartoli (Antiche Lucerne Sepolcrali, i. 24), the others from coins. In all these the rider wears a pileus, or cap of felt, and his horse is without a saddle ; but these examples prove that he had the use both of the whip and the rein. On the coins we also observe the wreath and palm-branch as ensigns of victory. [J. Y.]
DETESTATIO SACRORUM. [gens.] DEVERSO'RIUM. [caupona.] DEUNX. [As, p. 140, b ; libra.] DEXTANS. [As, p. 140, b ; libra.] DIABATE'RIA (Siagar'fipia), a sacrifice offered to Zeus and Athena by the kings of Sparta, upon passing the frontiers of Lacedaemon with the command of an army. If the victims were unfavourable, they disbanded the army and returned home. (Xen. De Rep. Lac. xi. 2 ; Time, v. 54, 55, 116.)
DIADEMA (StaS^a), a white fillet used to encircle the head (fascia alba., Val. Max. vi. 2. § 7). The invention of this ornament is by Pliny (vii. 57) attributed to " Liber Pater." Diodorus Siculus adds (iv. p. 250, Wessel.), that he wore it to assuage headache, the consequence of indulgence in wine. Accordingly, in works of ancient art, Dionysus wears a plain bandage on his head, as shown in the cut under cantharus- The decoration is properly Oriental. It is commonly represented on the heads of Eastern monarchs. Justin (xii. 3) relates that Alexander the Great adopted the large diadem of the kings of Persia, the ends of which fell upon the shoulders, and that this mark of royalty was preserved by his successors. Antony assumed it in his luxurious intercourse with Cleo-
patra in Egypt. (Florus, iv. 11.) Aelian says ( V. H. vi. 38) that the kings of that country lad the figure of an asp upon their diadems. In process of time the sculptors placed the diadema on the head of Zeus, and various other divinities besides Dionysus ; and it was also gradually assumed by the sovereigns of the Western world. It was tied behind in a bow ; whence Tacitus (Ann. vi. 37) speaks of the Euphrates rising in waves " white with foam, so as to resemble a diadem." By the addition of gold and gems, and by a continual increase in richness, size, and splendour, this bandage was at length converted into the crown which has been for many centuries the badge of sovereignty in modern Europe. [J. Y.]
DIADICASIA (8ia5t/ca<nV), in its most ex tended sense is a mere synonym of ^lkt] : techni cally, it denotes the proceedings in a contest for preference between two or more rival parties ; as, for instance, in the case of several claiming to succeed as heirs or legatees to the estate of a de ceased person. Upon an occasion of this kind, it will be observed that, as all the claimants are similarly situated with respect to the subject of dispute, the ordinary classification of the litigants as plaintiffs and defendants becomes no longer ap plicable. This, in fact, is the essential distinction between the proceedings in question and all other suits in which the parties appear as immediately opposed to each other; but as far as forms are con cerned, we are not told that they were peculiarly characterised. Besides the case above mentioned, there are several others to be classed with it in respect of the object of proceedings being an ab solute acquisition of property. Among these are to be reckoned the claims of private creditors upon a confiscated estate, and the contests between in formers claiming rewards proposed by the state for the discovery of crimes, &c., as upon the occasion of the mutilation of the Hermae (Andoc. 14) and the like. The other class of causes included under the general term consists of cases like the antidosis of the trierarchs [antidosis], contests as to who was to be held responsible to the state for public property alleged to have been transferred on one hand and denied on the other (as in Dem. c. Everg. et Mnes.\ and questions as to who should undertake a choregia, and many others, in which exemptions from personal or pecuniary liabilities to the state were the subject of claim by rival parties. In a diadicasia, as in an ordinary Sf/c??, the proper court, the presiding magistrate, and the expenses of the trial, mainly depended upon the peculiar object of the proceedings, and present no leading characteristics for discussion under the general term. (Platner, Process und Klagen, ii. p. 17. s. 9.) [dike.] [J.S.M.]
DIADOSEIS (SiaSdo-eis.) [dianomae.]
DIAETETICA, or DIAETE'TICE (Smmj-Ti/CT/), one of the principal branches into which the ancients divided the art and science of medicine. [medicina.] The word is derived from Siatra, which meant much the same as our word diet. It is defined by Celsus (De Medic. Praefat. in lib. i.) to signify that part of medicine quae victu medetur, " which cures diseases by means of regimen and diet;" and a similar explanation is given by Plato (ap. Diog. Latrt. iii. 1. § 85.) Taken strictly in this sense, it would correspond very nearly with the modern dietetics, and this is