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DEJECT! EFFUSIVE ACTIO.
united in the same person. The title 8e/caTeirrcu is applied to "both. A Se/carT? or tenth of a dif ferent kind was the arbitrary exaction imposed by the Athenians (b. C. 410) on the cargoes of all ships sailing into or out of the Pontus. They lost it by the battle of Aegospotami (b. c. 405) ; but it was re-established by Thrasybulus about b.c. 391. This tithe was also let out to farm. (Demosth. c. Lep. p. 475 ; Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 27, 31.) The tithe-house for the receipt of this duty was called Seicarevr'fipiov : to sail by necessity to it, Trapayco- yiafav. (Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 325, &c., 2nded.) [R. W.]
DECUNCIS, another name for the dextans. [As, p. 140, b.]
DECURIAE JUDICUM. [judex.]
DECUSSIS. [As, p. 140, b.]
DEDITICII, are one of the three classes of libertini. The lex Aelia Sentia provided that, if a slave was put in bonds by his master as a punishment, or branded, or put to the torture for an offence and convicted, or delivered up to fight with Avild beasts, or sent into a ludus (gladiator ius), or put in confinement (custodia), and then manumitted either by his then owner, or by another owner, he merely acquired the status of a peregrinus dediti-cius, and had not even the privileges of a Latinus. The peregrin! dediticii were those who, in former times, had taken up arms against the Roman people, and being conquered, had surrendered themselves. They were, in fact, a people who were absolutely subdued, and yielded unconditionally to the conquerors, and, of course, had no other relation to Rome than that of subjects. The form of deditio occurs in Livy (i. 37).
The dediticii existed as a class of persons who were neither slaves, nor cives, nor Latini, at least as late as the time of Ulpian. Their civil condition, as is stated above, was formed by analogy to the condition of a conquered people, who did not individually lose their freedom, but as a community lost all political existence. In the case of the Volsci, Livy inclines to the opinion that the four thousand who were sold, were slaves, and not dediti. (Gains, i. 13, &c. ; Ulpianus, Frag. tit. 1. s. 11.) [G. L.]
DEICELISTAE (5«/ceA«rrai). [comoedia.]
DEIGMA (5e?7yua), a particular place in the Peiraeeus, as well as in the harbours of other states, where merchants exposed samples of their goods for sale. (Harpocrat. s. v. • Pollux, ix. 34 ; Aristoph. Equit. 974 ; Dem. c. Lacr. p. 932. 20 ; Theophr. Char. 23.) The samples themselves were also called deigmata. (Pint. Demosth. 23 ; Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 58, 2nd. ed.}
DEJECTUM EFFUSUM. [dejecti effusive actio.]
DEJECTI EFFUSIVE ACTIO. If any person threw or poured out anything from a place or upper chamber (eaenaculuni) upon a road which was frequented by passengers, or on a place where people used to stand, and thereby caused any damage, the praetor's edict gave - the injured
person an actio in duplum. The action was against the occupier. If several persons inhabited a eaenaculuni, and any injury was done to another by a thing being thrown or poured out of it. he had a right of action against any of them, if the doer was uncertain. The damages recoverable were to double the amount of the damage, except in the case of a liber, when they were fifty aurei, if he was killed ; and any person might sue for the money within a year, but the right of action was given in preference to a person " cujus interest,1' or to affines or cognati. If a man was only injured in his person, the damages were " quantum ob earn rein aequum judici videbitur eum cum quo agatur condemnari," which included the expences of a medical attendant, loss of time, and loss of a man's earnings during the time of his cure, or loss of future earnings by reason of his having been rendered incapable of making such earnings. If injury was caused by a thing being thrown from a ship, there was an actio utilis ; for the words of the edict are, " unde in eum locum quo volgo iter fiat vel in quo consistatur, dejectum," &c.
The edict applied to things which were suspended over a public place and which by their fall might injure people. It allowed any person to bring an action for the recovery of ten aurei against any person who disregarded this rule of the edict. If' a thing so suspended, fell down and injured any person, there was an actio against him who placed it there.
As many of the houses in Rome were lofty, and inhabited to the top by the poor (Cic. Ayr. ii. 35 ; Hor. Ep. i. 1. 91 ; Juv. Sat. x. 17), and probably as there were very imperfect means for carrying off rubbish and other accumulations, it was necessary to provide against accidents which might happen by such things being thrown through the window. According to Labeo's opinion, the edict only applied to the daytime, and not to the night, which, however, was the more dangerous time for a passer-by. (Dig. 9. tit. 3 ; Dig. 44. tit. 7. s. 5. § 5 ; List. 4. tit. 5 ; Juv. Sat. iii. 268, &c.; Thibaut, System, &c. §566, 9th ed.) [G.L.]
DEILIAS GRAPHE (SerAfos ypa,^\ the name of a suit instituted against soldiers who had been guilty of cowardice. (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 566 ; Lys. c. Alcib. pp. 520, 525.) The presidency of the court belonged to the strategi, and the court was composed of soldiers who had served in the campaign. (Lys. c. Alcih. p. 521.) The punishment on conviction appears to have been dri/.tia. Compare astrateias graphe.
DEIPNON (5e?n7/ov). [CoENA.]
DELATOR, an informer. The delatores, under the emperors, were a class of men who gained their livelihood by informing against their fellow-citizens. (Suet. Tib. 61, Dom. 12 ; Tacit, Ann. iv. 30, vi. 47.) They constantly brought forward false charges to gratify the avarice or jealousy of the different emperors, and were consequently paid according to the importance of the information which they gave. In some cases, however, the law specified the sums which were to be given to informers. Thus, when a murder had been committed in a family, and any of the slaves belonging to it had run away before the quaestio, whoever apprehended such slaves received, for each slave whom he apprehended, a reward of five aurei from the property of the deceased, or else from the state, if the sum could