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On this page: Damosia – Dan Ace – Daneisma – Daphnephoria – Darfcus

384

DAPHNEPIIORIA.

another man's slave who was bound and so gave him the opportunity of escaping. A man who was not owner, might have an actio utilis legis Aquiliae or in factum, if he had an interest in the thing, as a fractuarius, usuarius, a bonae fidei pos­sessor, or a person who had received a thing as a pledge.

If a man's slave was killed, the owner might sue for damages under the Lex Aquilia, and prosecute for a capital offence.

(Cic. Pro Roscio Comoedo, c. 11 ; Gains, iii. 210, &c. ; Inst. 4. tit. 3 ; Thibaut, System, &c., .9th ed. § 551, &c. ; Rein, Das Romische Privat- recht.) [G. L.]

DAMOSIA (5a,uo(7ia), the escort or suite of the Spartan kings in time of war. It consisted of his tent-comrades ((ruoTcrjvot), to whom the pole-marchs, Pythians, and three of the equals (o'juotoi) also belonged (Xen. Rep. Lac. xiii. 1) ; of the prophets, surgeons, flute-players, volunteers in the army (Xen. Rep. Lac. xiii. 7), Olympian conquerors (Plut. Lye. 22), public servants, &c. The two ephors, who attended the king on military expedi­tions, also formed part of the damosia. (Miiller, Dorians, iii. 12. § 5.)

DAN ACE (Scw/tt/crj), the name of a foreign coin, according to Hesychius (s. v.) worth a little more than an obolos. According to some writers, it was a Persian coin. (Pollux, ix. 82,' and Hemster. ad Zoc.} This name was also given to the obolos, which was placed in the mouth of the dead to pay the ferryman in Hades (Hesych. s. v.; Lucian, De Luctu, c. 10, Mort. Dial. i. 3, xi. 4, xxii. 1.) At the opening of a grave at Same in Cephallenia, a coin was found between the teeth of the corpse. (Stackelberg, Die Graber der Hellenen, p. 42 ; Becker, Chat-ikies^ vol. ii. p. 170.)

DANEISMA (5&/eurjua). [fenup.]

DAPHNEPHORIA (SatJ^opia), a festival celebrated every ninth year at Thebes in honour of Apollo, surnamed Ismenius or Galaxius. Its name was derived from the laurel branches (Sd<pvcu} which were carried by those who took part in its celebration. A full account of the festival is given by Proclus (Chrestomath. p. 11). At one time all the Aeolians of Arne and the adjacent districts, at the command of an oracle, laid siege to Thebes, which was at the same time attacked by the Pe-ksgians, and ravaged the neighbouring country. But when the day came on which both parties had to celebrate a festival of Apollo, a truce was con­cluded, and on the day of the festival they went with laurel-boughs to the temple of the god. But Polematas, the general of the Boeotians, had a vision in which he saw a young man who pre­sented to him a complete suit of armour, and who made him vow to institute a festival, to be cele­brated every ninth year, in honour of Apollo, at which the Thebans, with laurel-boughs in their hands, were to go to his temple. When, on the third day after this vision, both parties again were engaged in close combat, Polematas gained the victory. Ho now fulfilled his promise, and walked himself to the temple of Apollo in the manner pre­scribed by the being he had seen in his vision. And ever-since that time, continues Proclus, this custom has been strictly observed. Respecting the mode of celebration, he adds :— At the daphne-phoria they adorn a piece of olive wood with gar­lands of laurel and various flowers ; on the top of it a brazen globe is placed, from which smaller

DARICUS.

ones are suspended ; purple garlands, smaller than those at the top, are attached to the middle part of the wood, and the lowest part is covered with a crocus-coloured envelope. By the globe on the top they indicate the sun, which is identical with Apollo ; the globe immediately below the first, represents the moon ; and the smaller suspending globes are symbols of the stars. The number of garlands being 365, indicates the course of the year. At the head of the procession walked a youth, whose father and mother must be living. This youth was, according to Pausanias (ix. 10. § 4), chosen priest of Apollo every year, and called b*a<pV7]<f)6pos : he was always of a handsome figure and strong, and taken from the most distinguished families of Thebes. Immediately before this youthful priest walked his nearest kinsman, who bore the adorned piece of olive-wood, which was called /ccoTTw. The priest followed, bearing in his hand a laurel-branch, with dishevelled and floating hair, wearing a golden crown on his head, a magnificent robe which reached down to his feet (•7ro8^p?7s), and a kind of shoes called 3I<£j/cpaTiSes, from the general, Iphicrates, who had first intro­duced them. Behind the priest there followed a choir of maidens with boughs in their hands and singing hymns. In this manner the procession went to the temple of Apollo Ismenius or Galaxius. It would seem from Pausanias that all the boys of the town wore laurel garlands on this occasion, and that it was customary for the sons of wealthy parents to dedicate to the god brazen tripods, a considerable number of which were seen in the temple by Pausanias himself. Among them was one which was said to have been dedicated by Amphitryon, at the time when Heracles was. daphnephorus. This last circumstance shows that the daplmephoria, whatever changes may have been subsequently introduced, was a very ancient festival.

There was a great similarity between this fes­tival and a solemn rite observed by the Delphians, who sent every ninth year a sacred boy to Tempe. This boy went on the sacred road (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 12), and returned home as laurel-bearer (5a<£-vfltyopos) amidst the joyful songs of choruses of maidens. This solemnity was observed in com­memoration of the purification of Apollo at the altar in Tempe, whither he had fled after killing the Python, and was held in the month of Thar-gelion (probably on the seventh day). It is a very probable conjecture of Miiller (Dor. ii. 8. § 4) that the Boeotian daphnephoria took place in the same month and on the same day on which the Delphian boy broke the purifying laurel-boughs in Tempe.

The Athenians seem likewise to have celebrated a festival of the same nature, but the only mention we have of it is in Proclus (ap. Photium, p. 987), who says that the Athenians honoured the seventh day as sacred to Apollo, that they carried laurel- boughs and adorned the basket (/careo;/, see cane- phoros) with garlands, and sang hymns to the god. Respecting the astronomical character of the daphnephoria see Mtiller, Orchom. p. 215, 2d edit.; and Creuzer, Symbol, und Mythol. ii. p. 160. [L.S.j

DARFCUS (Sapa/cos), or, to give the name in full, (TTaTTjp Sapet/cos1, the stater of Dareius (Time, viii. 28), was a gold coin of Persia, stamped on one side with the figure of an archer crowned and kneeling upon one knee, and on the other with a

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