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378

CURRUS.

resident alien, the deficiency of franchise would be supplied by his Athenian patron (irpocrTciTtjs). The duties to be performed, and in default of their performance, the penalties incurred by guardians, and the proceedings as to their appointment, are mentioned under their more usual title [Eprrno-pus].

The business of those who were more especially designated curii in the Attic laws, was to protect the interests of women, whether spinsters or widows, or persons separated from their husbands. If a citizen died intestate, leaving an orphan daughter, the son, or the father, of the deceased was bound to supply her with a sufficient dowry, and give her in marriage ; and take care both for his own sake and that of his ward, that the husband made a proper settlement in return for what his bride brought him in the way of dower (aTrorfyiT^a, Harpocr.). In the event of the death of the hus­band or of a divorce, it became the duty of the curius that had betrothed her, to receive her back and recover the dowry, or at all events ali­mony from the husband or his representatives. If the father of the woman had died intestate, with­out leaving such relations as above-mentioned sur­viving, these duties devolved upon the next of kin, who had also the option of marrying her him­self, and taking her fortune with her, whether it were great or small. (Bunsen, De J. H. Ath. p. 46.) If the fortune was small, and he was unwilling to marry her, he was obliged to make up its defici­encies according to a regulation of Solon (Dem. c. Macart. p. 1068) ; if it were large he might, it appears, sometimes even take her away from a husband to whom she had been married, in the lifetime and with the consent of her father.

There were various laws for the protection of female orphans against the neglect or cruelty of their kinsmen ; as one of Solon's (Diod. xii. p. 298), whereby they could compel their kinsmen to endow or marry them ; and another which after their marriage enabled any Athenian to bring an action Ka/cct>(rea>s, to protect them against the cruelty of*their husbands (Petit. Leg. Att. p. 543) ; and the archon was specially entrusted with official power to interfere in their behalf upon all occasions. (Dem. c. Macart. p. 1076.) [kakosis.] [J. S.M.]

CURRUS (a/fyia), a chariot, a car. These terms appear to have denoted those two-wheeled vehicles for the carriage of persons, which were open overhead, thus differing from the carpentum, and closed in front, in which they differed from the cisium. The most essential articles in the construction of the currus were : —

1. The antyx (&vtv%], or rim ; and it is accord­ingly seen in all the chariots which are represented either in this article or at pp. 101,238. [antyx.]

2. The axle, made of oak ($T]yivos 'afav, Horn. //. v. 838, imitated by Virgil, faginus axis., Georg. iii. 172), and sometimes also of ilex, ash, or elm. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 84.) The axle was firmly fixed under the body of the chariot, which, in reference to this circumstance, was called uTreprepta, and which was often made of wicker-work, inclosed by the &/tu| (Horn. //. xxiii. 335, 436 ; Hes. Scut. 306).

3. The wheels (k^k\ol, Tpo%oi, rotae) revolved upon the axle as in modern carriages ; and they were prevented from coming off by the insertion of pins (irep6vai, €/*§o\oi) into the extremities of the axle (a,Kpa£ovia). The parts of the wheel were as

CURRUS.

follows: — (a) The nave* called TrA.TjjUi/rj (Horn. II. v. 726, xxiii. 339 ; Hes. Scut. 309), xoivlK^ modiolus (Plin. FT. N. ix. 3). The two last terms are founded on the resemblance of the nave to a modius or bushel. (/;) The spokes, /cz/Tjjiicu (literally, l/i0 legs), radii. The number of spokes of course differed in different wheels. On one occasion we read of eight (oktclkv^io,, II. v. 723). (c) The felly, itvs (Horn. II. v. 724). This was commonly made of some flexible and elastic wood, such as poplar (//. iv. 482—486), or the wild fig, which was also used for the rim of the chariot; heat was applied to assist in producing the requisite curvature. (//. xxi. 37, 38, compared with Theocrit. xxv. 247—251.) The felly was, however, composed of separate pieces, called arcs (a^/?Ses, Hes. Op. et Dies, 426). Hesiod (I. c.) evidently intended to recommend that a wheel should consist of four pieces, (d) The tire, eiricrcarpov, canthus. Homer (II. v. 725) describes the chariot of Hera as having a tire of bronze upon a golden felly, thus placing the harder metal in a position to resist friction, and to protect the softer.

4. The pole (pv^6s, temo). It was firmly fixed at its lower extremity to the axle ; and at the other end (aKpoppviJLiov) the pole was attached to the yoke either by a pin (eju§oA.os), as shown in the chariot engraved below, or by the use of ropes and bands [jugum].

All tne parts now enumerated are seen in an ancient chariot preserved in the Vatican, a repre­sentation of which is given in the annexed wood­cut.

Carriages with two or even three poles were used by the Lydians. (Aeschyl. Pers. 47.) The Greeks and Romans, on the other hand, appear never to have used more than one pole and one yoke, and the currus thus constructed was com­monly drawn by two horses, which were attached to it by their necks, and therefore called Si£vye$ 'linroi (Horn. II. v. 195, x. 473), crwwpis (Xen. Hell. i. 2. § 1), " gemini jugales " (Virg. Am. vii. 280), " equi bijuges " (Georg. iii. 91). If a third horse was added, as was not unfrequently the case, it was fastened by traces. It may have been in­tended to take the place of either of the yoke horses ( &jloi iTTTTOi), which might happen to be disabled. The horse so attached was called irap^opos. Ginz-rot (W'dgen und Fahrwer/ce, vol. i. p. 342) has pub-

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