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On this page: Cultrarius – Cuneus – Cuniculus – Cupa – Cura – Curatela – Curatio – Curator



ii. p. 640. No. 11), which are copied in the an­nexed woodcut.





The name culter was also applied to razors (Cic. De Off. ii. 7 ; Plin. vii. 59 ; Petron. Sat. 108), and kitchen knives (Varro, ap. Non. iii. 32). That in. these cases the culter was different from those above represented, and most probably smaller, is certain ; since whenever it was used for shaving or domestic purposes, it was always distinguished from the common culter by some epithet, as culter tonsorius, culter coquinaris. Fruit knives were also called cultri ; but they were of a smaller kind (cultelli], and made of bone or ivory (Colum. xii. 14, 45 ; Plin. xii. 25 ; Scribon. c. 83). Colu- mella, who gives (iv. 25) a very minute descrip­ tion of afalx vinitoria, a knife for pruning vines, says that the part of the blade nearest to the handle was called culter on account of its similarity to an ordinary culter, the edge of that part form­ ing a straight line. This culter according to him was used when a branch was to be cut off which required a hard pressure of the hand on the knife. The name culter, which was also applied to the sharp and pointed iron of the plough (Plin. //. A7". xviii. 18. 48), is still extant in English, in the form coulter, to designate the same thing. [aratrum.] The expression in cultrum or in cultro collocatus (Vitruv. x. 10, 14) signifies placed in a perpendi­ cular position. [L. S.]

CULTRARIUS. [culter.]

CUNEUS. [exercitus ; theatrum.]

CUNICULUS (vir6vo{jios\ A mine or pas­ sage underground was so called from its resemblance to the burrowing of a rabbit. Thus Martial (xiii. 60) says,

" Gaudet in effossis habitare cuniculus antris, Monstravit tacitas hostibus ille vias."

Fidenae and Veii are said to have been taken by mines, which opened, one of them into the citadel, the other into the temple of Juno. (Liv. iv. 22, V; 19.) Niebuhr (Hist. Rom. vol. ii. p. 483) observes that there is hardly any authen­ tic instance of a town being taken in the manner related of Veii, and supposes that the legend arose out of a tradition that Veii was taken by means of a mine, by which a part of the wall was over­ thrown. [R. W.]

CUPA, a wine-vat, a vessel very much like the


doliu?n, and used for the same purpose, namely, to receive the fresh must, and to contain it during the process of fermentation. The inferior wines were drawn for drinking from the cupa, without being bottled in amphorae, and hence the term vinwn de cupa (Varr. ap. Non. ii. 113 ; Dig. 18. tit. 6. s. 1. I § 4). The phrase in Horace (Sat. ii. 2.123), cupa i potare mayistra, if correct, would mean, to make i the wine vessel the sole magister bibendi ; Bentley j adopts cupa in this passage, as another form of copa, a hostess, a word connected with caupo : this word occurs in Suetonius (Ner. 27), and one of Virgil's minor poems was entitled Copa or Cupa, (Charis. i. p. 47, Putsch.) In the passage of Horace, however, the reading cupa is only con­jectural : the MSS. give culpa, out of which a good sense can be made. (See the notes of Hein-dorf, Orelli, and Duntzer.)

The cupa was either made of earthenware, like the dolium, or of wood, and covered with pitch. In the latter case, pine-wood was preferred (Plin. H* N. xvi. 10. s. 18). It was used for other purposes, such as preserved fruits and corn, form­ ing rafts, and containing combustibles in war, and even for a sarcophagus. (See the passages cited by Forcellini, s. v.) [Comp. dolium ; Vi- num.] [P. S.]

CURA. [curator.]

CURATELA. [curator.]

CURATIO. [curator.]

CURATOR. Up to the time of pubertas, every Roman citizen, as a general rule, was inca­ pable of doing any legal act, or entering into any contract which might be injurious to him. The time when pubertas was attained, was a matter of dispute ; some fixed it at the commencement of the age of procreation, and some at the age of fourteen. (Gaius, i. 169.) In all transactions by the impubes, it was necessary for the auctoritas of the tutor to be interposed. [auctoritas ; tutor.] With the age of puberty, the youth attained the capacity •of contracting marriage and becoming a pater­ familias : he was liable to military service, and entitled to vote in the comitia; and consistently with this, he was freed from the control of a tutor. Fema'es who had attained the age of puberty be­ came subject to another kind of tutela. [tutela.] With the attainment of the age of puberty by a Roman youth, every legal capacity was acquired which depended on age only, with the exception of the capacity for public offices, and there was no rule about age, even as to public offices, before the passing of the lex Villia. [aediles.] It was, however, a matter of necessity to give some legal protection to young persons who, owing to their tender age, were liable to be overreached ; and consistently with the development of Roman juris­ prudence, this object was effected without inter­ fering with the old principle of full legal capacity being attained with the age of puberty. This was accomplished by the lex Plaetoria (the true name of the lex, as Savigny has shown), the date of which is not known, though it is certain that the law existed when Plautus wrote (Pseudolus, i. 3. 69). This law established a distinction of age, which was of great practical importance, by form­ ing the citizens into two classes, those above and those below twenty-five years of age (minores viginti quinque annis), whence a person under the last- mentioned age was sometimes simply called minor. The object of the lex was to protect persons under

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